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Lipid peroxidation

About: Lipid peroxidation is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 42440 publications have been published within this topic receiving 1876015 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Using this method, the liped peroxide level in the liver of rats suffering from carbon tetrachloride intoxication was investigated and was in good agreement with previously reported data obtained by measuring diene content.

24,847 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: This chapter discusses microsomal lipid peroxidation, a complex process known to occur in both plants and animals that involves the formation and propagation of lipid radicals, the uptake of oxygen, a rearrangement of the double bonds in unsaturated lipids, and the eventual destruction of membrane lipids.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter discusses microsomal lipid peroxidation Lipid peroxidation is a complex process known to occur in both plants and animals It involves the formation and propagation of lipid radicals, the uptake of oxygen, a rearrangement of the double bonds in unsaturated lipids, and the eventual destruction of membrane lipids, producing a variety of breakdown products, including alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, and ethers Biological membranes are often rich in unsaturated fatty acids and bathed in an oxygen-rich, metal-containing fluid Lipid peroxidation begins with the abstraction of a hydrogen atom from an unsaturated fatty acid, resulting in the formation of a lipid radical The formation of lipid endoperoxides in unsaturated fatty acids containing at least 3 methylene interrupted double bonds can lead to the formation of malondialdehyde as a breakdown product Nonenzymic peroxidation of microsomal membranes also occurs and is probably mediated in part by endogenous hemoproteins and transition metals The direct measurement of lipid hydroperoxides has an advantage over the thiobarbituric acid assay in that it permits a more accurate comparison of lipid peroxide levels in dissimilar lipid membranes

11,945 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review provides a comprehensive summary on the chemical properties of 4-hydroxyalkenals and malonaldehyde, the mechanisms of their formation and their occurrence in biological systems and methods for their determination, as well as the many types of biological activities described so far.

6,456 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: The chapter discusses the metabolism of transition metals, such as iron and copper, and the chelation therapy that is an approach to site-specific antioxidant protection.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the role of free radicals and catalytic metal ions in human disease. The importance of transition metal ions in mediating oxidant damage naturally leads to the question as to what forms of such ions might be available to catalyze radical reactions in vivo . The chapter discusses the metabolism of transition metals, such as iron and copper. It also discusses the chelation therapy that is an approach to site-specific antioxidant protection. The detection and measurement of lipid peroxidation is the evidence most frequently cited to support the involvement of free radical reactions in toxicology and in human disease. A wide range of techniques is available to measure the rate of this process, but none is applicable to all circumstances. The two most popular are the measurement of diene conjugation and the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test, but they are both subject to pitfalls, especially when applied to human samples. The chapter also discusses the essential principles of the peroxidation process. When discussing lipid peroxidation, it is essential to use clear terminology for the sequence of events involved; an imprecise use of terms such as initiation has caused considerable confusion in the literature. In a completely peroxide-free lipid system, first chain initiation of a peroxidation sequence in a membrane or polyunsaturated fatty acid refers to the attack of any species that has sufficient reactivity to abstract a hydrogen atom from a methylene group.

5,033 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review summarizes recent findings in the metal-induced formation of free radicals and the role of oxidative stress in the carcinogenicity and toxicity of metals.
Abstract: Metal-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity, with an emphasis on the generation and role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, is reviewed. Metal-mediated formation of free radicals causes various modifications to DNA bases, enhanced lipid peroxidation, and altered calcium and sulfhydryl homeostasis. Lipid peroxides, formed by the attack of radicals on polyunsaturated fatty acid residues of phospholipids, can further react with redox metals finally producing mutagenic and carcinogenic malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal and other exocyclic DNA adducts (etheno and/or propano adducts). Whilst iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), vanadium (V) and cobalt (Co) undergo redox-cycling reactions, for a second group of metals, mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni), the primary route for their toxicity is depletion of glutathione and bonding to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. Arsenic (As) is thought to bind directly to critical thiols, however, other mechanisms, involving formation of hydrogen peroxide under physiological conditions, have been proposed. The unifying factor in determining toxicity and carcinogenicity for all these metals is the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Common mechanisms involving the Fenton reaction, generation of the superoxide radical and the hydroxyl radical appear to be involved for iron, copper, chromium, vanadium and cobalt primarily associated with mitochondria, microsomes and peroxisomes. However, a recent discovery that the upper limit of "free pools" of copper is far less than a single atom per cell casts serious doubt on the in vivo role of copper in Fenton-like generation of free radicals. Nitric oxide (NO) seems to be involved in arsenite-induced DNA damage and pyrimidine excision inhibition. Various studies have confirmed that metals activate signalling pathways and the carcinogenic effect of metals has been related to activation of mainly redox-sensitive transcription factors, involving NF-kappaB, AP-1 and p53. Antioxidants (both enzymatic and non-enzymatic) provide protection against deleterious metal-mediated free radical attacks. Vitamin E and melatonin can prevent the majority of metal-mediated (iron, copper, cadmium) damage both in vitro systems and in metal-loaded animals. Toxicity studies involving chromium have shown that the protective effect of vitamin E against lipid peroxidation may be associated rather with the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants than the activity of enzymatic antioxidants. However, a very recent epidemiological study has shown that a daily intake of vitamin E of more than 400 IU increases the risk of death and should be avoided. While previous studies have proposed a deleterious pro-oxidant effect of vitamin C (ascorbate) in the presence of iron (or copper), recent results have shown that even in the presence of redox-active iron (or copper) and hydrogen peroxide, ascorbate acts as an antioxidant that prevents lipid peroxidation and does not promote protein oxidation in humans in vitro. Experimental results have also shown a link between vanadium and oxidative stress in the etiology of diabetes. The impact of zinc (Zn) on the immune system, the ability of zinc to act as an antioxidant in order to reduce oxidative stress and the neuroprotective and neurodegenerative role of zinc (and copper) in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease is also discussed. This review summarizes recent findings in the metal-induced formation of free radicals and the role of oxidative stress in the carcinogenicity and toxicity of metals.

4,272 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20241
20231,182
20222,473
20211,045
20201,068
20191,140