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Lipopolysaccharide

About: Lipopolysaccharide is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 12400 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 568914 citation(s). The topic is also known as: LPS & lipopolysaccharides.
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Journal ArticleDOI
21 Sep 1990-Science
TL;DR: CD14, a differentiation antigen of monocytes, was found to bind complexes of LPS and LBP, and blockade of CD14 with monoclonal antibodies prevented synthesis of TNF-alpha by whole blood incubated with LPS.
Abstract: Leukocytes respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at nanogram per milliliter concentrations with secretion of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Excess secretion of TNF-alpha causes endotoxic shock, an often fatal complication of infection. LPS in the bloodstream rapidly binds to the serum protein, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), and cellular responses to physiological levels of LPS are dependent on LBP. CD14, a differentiation antigen of monocytes, was found to bind complexes of LPS and LBP, and blockade of CD14 with monoclonal antibodies prevented synthesis of TNF-alpha by whole blood incubated with LPS. Thus, LPS may induce responses by interacting with a soluble binding protein in serum that then binds the cell surface protein CD14.

3,948 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results indicate that IL-10 has important regulatory effects on immunological and inflammatory responses because of its capacity to downregulate class II MHC expression and to inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines by monocytes.
Abstract: In the present study we demonstrate that human monocytes activated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were able to produce high levels of interleukin 10 (IL-10), previously designated cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), in a dose dependent fashion. IL-10 was detectable 7 h after activation of the monocytes and maximal levels of IL-10 production were observed after 24-48 h. These kinetics indicated that the production of IL-10 by human monocytes was relatively late as compared to the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), which were all secreted at high levels 4-8 h after activation. The production of IL-10 by LPS activated monocytes was, similar to that of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and G-CSF, inhibited by IL-4. Furthermore we demonstrate here that IL-10, added to monocytes, activated by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), LPS, or combinations of LPS and IFN-gamma at the onset of the cultures, strongly inhibited the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, GM-CSF, and G-CSF at the transcriptional level. Viral-IL-10, which has similar biological activities on human cells, also inhibited the production of TNF alpha and GM-CSF by monocytes following LPS activation. Activation of monocytes by LPS in the presence of neutralizing anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibodies resulted in the production of higher amounts of cytokines relative to LPS treatment alone, indicating that endogenously produced IL-10 inhibited the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, GM-CSF, and G-CSF. In addition, IL-10 had autoregulatory effects since it strongly inhibited IL-10 mRNA synthesis in LPS activated monocytes. Furthermore, endogenously produced IL-10 was found to be responsible for the reduction in class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression following activation of monocytes with LPS. Taken together our results indicate that IL-10 has important regulatory effects on immunological and inflammatory responses because of its capacity to downregulate class II MHC expression and to inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines by monocytes.

3,750 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Osamu Takeuchi1, Katsuaki Hoshino1, Taro Kawai1, Hideki Sanjo1  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
01 Oct 1999-Immunity
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that TLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components in vivo andTLR2 plays a major role in Gram-positive bacterial recognition.
Abstract: Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 are implicated in the recognition of various bacterial cell wall components, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To investigate in vivo roles of TLR2, we generated TLR2-deficient mice. In contrast to LPS unresponsiveness in TLR4-deficient mice, TLR2-deficient mice responded to LPS to the same extent as wild-type mice. TLR2-deficient macrophages were hyporesponsive to several Gram-positive bacterial cell walls as well as Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan. TLR4-deficient macrophages lacked the response to Gram-positive lipoteichoic acids. These results demonstrate that TLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components in vivo and TLR2 plays a major role in Gram-positive bacterial recognition.

3,261 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Kevin J. Tracey1, Kevin J. Tracey2, Yuman Fong1, David G. Hesse1  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
17 Dec 1987-Nature
TL;DR: Protection against shock, vital organ dysfunction, persistent stress hormone release and death was conferred by administration of antibodies 2 h before bacterial infusion, indicating that cachectin is a mediator of fatal bacteraemic shock and suggesting that antibodies against Cachectin offer a potential therapy of life-threatening infection.
Abstract: Bacterial infection of the mammalian bloodstream can lead to overwhelming sepsis, a potentially fatal syndrome of irreversible cardiovascular collapse (shock) and critical organ failure. Cachectin, also known as tumour necrosis factor, is a macrophage-derived peptide hormone released in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and it has been implicated as a principal mediator of endotoxic shock, although its function in bacterial sepsis is not known. Anaesthetized baboons were passively immunized against endogenous cachectin and subsequently infused with an LD100 dose of live Escherichia coli. Control animals (not immunized against cachectin) developed hypotension followed by lethal renal and pulmonary failure. Neutralizing monoclonal anti-cachectin antibody fragments (F(ab′)2) administered to baboons only one hour before bacterial challenge protected against shock, but did not prevent critical organ failure. Complete protection against shock, vital organ dysfunction, persistent stress hormone release and death was conferred by administration of antibodies 2 h before bacterial infusion. These results indicate that cachectin is a mediator of fatal bacteraemic shock, and suggest that antibodies against cachectin offer a potential therapy of life-threatening infection.

2,545 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Haruki Okamura1, H Tsutsi2, T Komatsu1, M Yutsudo  +6 moreInstitutions (2)
02 Nov 1995-Nature
TL;DR: The cloning of a recently identified IFN-γ-inducing factor (IGIF) that augments natural killer activity in spleen cells and may be involved in the development of Thl cells and also in mechanisms of tissue injury in inflammatory reactions is reported.
Abstract: The mechanism underlying the differentiation of CD4+ T cells into functionally distinct subsets (Th1 and Th2) is incompletely understood, and hitherto unidentified cytokines may be required for the functional maturation of these cells. Here we report the cloning of a recently identified IFN-gamma-inducing factor (IGIF) that augments natural killer (NK) activity in spleen cells. The gene encodes a precursor protein of 192 amino acids and a mature protein of 157 amino acids, which have no obvious similarities to any peptide in the databases. Messenger RNAs for IGIF and interleukin-12 (IL-12) are readily detected in Kupffer cells and activated macrophages. Recombinant IGIF induces IFN-gamma more potently than does IL-12, apparently through a separate pathway. Administration of anti-IGIF antibodies prevents liver damage in mice inoculated with Propionibacterium acnes and challenged with lipopolysaccharide, which induces toxic shock. IGIF may be involved in the development of Th1 cells and also in mechanisms of tissue injury in inflammatory reactions.

2,441 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202211
2021545
2020590
2019528
2018481
2017449