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Liquid water content

About: Liquid water content is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3198 publications have been published within this topic receiving 125572 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The bulk properties of tropical cloud clusters, such as the vertical mass flux, the excess temperature, and moisture and the liquid water content of the clouds, are determined from a combination of the observed large-scale heat and moisture budgets over an area covering the cloud cluster, and a model of a cumulus ensemble which exchanges mass, heat, water vapor and liquid water with the environment through entrainment and detrainment.
Abstract: The bulk properties of tropical cloud clusters, such as the vertical mass flux, the excess temperature, and moisture and the liquid water content of the clouds, are determined from a combination of 1) the observed large-scale heat and moisture budgets over an area covering the cloud cluster, and 2) a model of a cumulus ensemble which exchanges mass, heat, water vapor and liquid water with the environment through entrainment and detrainment The method also provides an understanding of how the environmental air is heated and moistened by the cumulus convection An estimate of the average cloud cluster properties and the heat and moisture balance of the environment, obtained from 1956 Marshall Islands data, is presented

1,657 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
27 Feb 2004-Science
TL;DR: Heavy smoke from forest fires in the Amazon was observed to reduce cloud droplet size and so delay the onset of precipitation, which affects the water cycle, the pollution burden of the atmosphere, and the dynamics of atmospheric circulation.
Abstract: Heavy smoke from forest fires in the Amazon was observed to reduce cloud droplet size and so delay the onset of precipitation from 1.5 kilometers above cloud base in pristine clouds to more than 5 kilometers in polluted clouds and more than 7 kilometers in pyro-clouds. Suppression of low-level rainout and aerosol washout allows transport of water and smoke to upper levels,where the clouds appear “smoking” as they detrain much of the pollution. Elevating the onset of precipitation allows invigoration of the updrafts,causing intense thunderstorms,large hail,and greater likelihood for overshooting cloud tops into the stratosphere. There,detrained pollutants and water vapor would have profound radiative impacts on the climate system. The invigorated storms release the latent heat higher in the atmosphere. This should substantially affect the regional and global circulation systems. Together,these processes affect the water cycle,the pollution burden of the atmosphere,and the dynamics of atmospheric circulation. Several hundred thousand deforestation and agricultural fires burn in Amazonia during the dry season each year, covering vast areas with dense smoke (1, 2). The smoke’s radiative impact suppresses surface heating and evaporation and stabilizes the lower troposphere. In turn, this suppresses the formation of convective clouds and precipitation and thus slows down the hydrological cycle (3). The microphysical effects of the aerosols on clouds and precipitation are no less important but have until now only been inferred from modeling and satellite observations. Convective clouds forming in smoky air show substantially reduced droplet size compared to that of similar clouds in clean air (4), with a mean satelliteretrieved effective droplet radius of 9 m in smoky clouds compared to 14 mi n clean clouds (5). This reduction of cloud droplet size by smoke is associated with an inhibition of the onset of precipitation radar echoes up to heights of 6.5 km, compared to 3 km in smoke-free clouds (6, 7). Here, we report in situ measurements for

1,355 citations

Book
01 Jan 1971
TL;DR: In the last fifteen years there has been a surge of activity in this science under the stimulus of development in civil and military aviation as discussed by the authors, and the growth of cloud physics during this period has been fostered not only by this general invigoration, but also by recognition of the practicability of exerting some influence upon the behaviour of clouds and their capacity for producing rain, hail, lightning and other meteorological phenomena.
Abstract: Over most of the earth clouds and precipitation are the dominant elements of the weather, and their study includes, directly or indirectly, a large part of the science of meteorology. In the last fifteen years there has been a surge of activity in this science under the stimulus of development in civil and military aviation. The growth of cloud physics during this period has been fostered not only by this general invigoration, but also by recognition of the practicability of exerting some influence upon the behaviour of clouds and their capacity for producing rain, hail, lightning and other meteorological phenomena.

1,134 citations

Book
01 Jan 1976
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the thermodynamic properties of dry air water vapor and its thermodynamic effects Parcel buoyancy and atmospheric stability Mixing and convection Observed properties of clouds Formation of cloud droplets Droplet growth by condensation Initiation of rain in nonfreezing clouds Formation and growth of ice crystals Rain and snow Weather radar Precipitation processes Severe storm and hail Weather modification Numerical cloud models References Appendix Answers to selected problems Index
Abstract: Thermodynamics of dry air Water vapor and its thermodynamic effects Parcel buoyancy and atmospheric stability Mixing and convection Observed properties of clouds Formation of cloud droplets Droplet growth by condensation Initiation of rain in nonfreezing clouds Formation and growth of ice crystals Rain and snow Weather radar Precipitation processes Severe storm and hail Weather modification Numerical cloud models References Appendix Answers to selected problems Index

1,094 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a prognostic scheme for stratiform and convective clouds is developed for large-scale models, where the time evolution of clouds is defined through the large scale budget equations for cloud water content and cloud air.
Abstract: A prognostic scheme for stratiform and convective clouds is developed for large-scale models. The time evolution of clouds is defined through the large-scale budget equations for cloud water content and cloud air (which is converted into a prognostic equation for fractional cloud cover). The scheme considers the formation of clouds in connection with large-scale ascent diabatic cooling, boundary-layer turbulence, and horizontal transport of cloud water from convective updrafts. Clouds dissipate through adiabatic and diabatic heating, turbulent mixing of cloud air with unsaturated environmental air, and depletion of cloud water by precipitation. The scheme differs from conventional schemes in its approach, which is fully prognostic and model consistent, and in the larger degree of complexity as the formation of anvil and circus clouds originating by cumulus updrafts and boundary-layer clouds is included. The scheme has been tested in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) g...

896 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023129
2022157
202145
202031
201948
201822