About: Lithium is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 109555 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 2099136 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Li & element 3.
28 Sep 2000-Nature
TL;DR: It is reported that electrodes made of nanoparticles of transition-metal oxides (MO), where M is Co, Ni, Cu or Fe, demonstrate electrochemical capacities of 700 mA h g-1, with 100% capacity retention for up to 100 cycles and high recharging rates.
Abstract: Rechargeable solid-state batteries have long been considered an attractive power source for a wide variety of applications, and in particular, lithium-ion batteries are emerging as the technology of choice for portable electronics. One of the main challenges in the design of these batteries is to ensure that the electrodes maintain their integrity over many discharge-recharge cycles. Although promising electrode systems have recently been proposed, their lifespans are limited by Li-alloying agglomeration or the growth of passivation layers, which prevent the fully reversible insertion of Li ions into the negative electrodes. Here we report that electrodes made of nanoparticles of transition-metal oxides (MO, where M is Co, Ni, Cu or Fe) demonstrate electrochemical capacities of 700 mA h g(-1), with 100% capacity retention for up to 100 cycles and high recharging rates. The mechanism of Li reactivity differs from the classical Li insertion/deinsertion or Li-alloying processes, and involves the formation and decomposition of Li2O, accompanying the reduction and oxidation of metal nanoparticles (in the range 1-5 nanometres) respectively. We expect that the use of transition-metal nanoparticles to enhance surface electrochemical reactivity will lead to further improvements in the performance of lithium-ion batteries.
01 Apr 1997-Journal of The Electrochemical Society
Abstract: Reversible extraction of lithium from LiFePO 4 (triphylite) and insertion of lithium into FePO 4 at 3.5 V vs. lithium at 0.05 mA/cm 2 shows this material to be an excellent candidate for the cathode of a low-power, rechargeable lithium battery that is inexpensive, nontoxic, and environmentally benign. Electrochemical extraction was limited to ∼0.6 Li/formula unit; but even with this restriction the specific capacity is 100 to 110 mAh/g. Complete extraction of lithium was performed chemically; it gave a new phase, FePO 4 , isostructural with heterosite, Fe 0.65 Mn 0.35 PO 4 . The FePO 4 framework of the ordered olivine LiFePO 4 is retained with minor displacive adjustments. Nevertheless the insertion/extraction reaction proceeds via a two-phase process, and a reversible loss in capacity with increasing current density appears to be associated with a diffusion-limited transfer of lithium across the two-phase interface. Electrochemical extraction of lithium from isostructural LiMPO 4 (M = Mn, Co, or Ni) with an LiClO 4 electrolyte was not possible; but successful extraction of lithium from LiFe 1-x Mn x PO 4 was accomplished with maximum oxidation of the Mn 3+ /Mn 2+ occurring at x = 0.5. The Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ couple was oxidized first at 3.5 V followed by oxidation of the Mn 3+ /Mn 2+ couple at 4.1 V vs. lithium. The Fe 3+ -O-Mn 2+ interactions appear to destabilize the Mn 2+ level and stabilize the Fe 2+ level so as to make the Mn 3+ /Mn 2+ energy accessible.
01 Jan 2008-Nature Nanotechnology
TL;DR: The theoretical charge capacity for silicon nanowire battery electrodes is achieved and maintained a discharge capacity close to 75% of this maximum, with little fading during cycling.
Abstract: There is great interest in developing rechargeable lithium batteries with higher energy capacity and longer cycle life for applications in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and implantable medical devices. Silicon is an attractive anode material for lithium batteries because it has a low discharge potential and the highest known theoretical charge capacity (4,200 mAh g(-1); ref. 2). Although this is more than ten times higher than existing graphite anodes and much larger than various nitride and oxide materials, silicon anodes have limited applications because silicon's volume changes by 400% upon insertion and extraction of lithium which results in pulverization and capacity fading. Here, we show that silicon nanowire battery electrodes circumvent these issues as they can accommodate large strain without pulverization, provide good electronic contact and conduction, and display short lithium insertion distances. We achieved the theoretical charge capacity for silicon anodes and maintained a discharge capacity close to 75% of this maximum, with little fading during cycling.
M. Stanley Whittingham1•Institutions (1)
14 Sep 2004-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: This paper will describe lithium batteries in more detail, building an overall foundation for the papers that follow which describe specific components in some depth and usually with an emphasis on the materials behavior.
Abstract: In the previous paper Ralph Brodd and Martin Winter described the different kinds of batteries and fuel cells. In this paper I will describe lithium batteries in more detail, building an overall foundation for the papers that follow which describe specific components in some depth and usually with an emphasis on the materials behavior. The lithium battery industry is undergoing rapid expansion, now representing the largest segment of the portable battery industry and dominating the computer, cell phone, and camera power source industry. However, the present secondary batteries use expensive components, which are not in sufficient supply to allow the industry to grow at the same rate in the next decade. Moreover, the safety of the system is questionable for the large-scale batteries needed for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Another battery need is for a high-power system that can be used for power tools, where only the environmentally hazardous Ni/ Cd battery presently meets the requirements. A battery is a transducer that converts chemical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. It contains an anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte. The anode, in the case of a lithium battery, is the source of lithium ions. The cathode is the sink for the lithium ions and is chosen to optimize a number of parameters, discussed below. The electrolyte provides for the separation of ionic transport and electronic transport, and in a perfect battery the lithium ion transport number will be unity in the electrolyte. The cell potential is determined by the difference between the chemical potential of the lithium in the anode and cathode, ∆G ) -EF. As noted above, the lithium ions flow through the electrolyte whereas the electrons generated from the reaction, Li ) Li+ + e-, go through the external circuit to do work. Thus, the electrode system must allow for the flow of both lithium ions and electrons. That is, it must be both a good ionic conductor and an electronic conductor. As discussed below, many electrochemically active materials are not good electronic conductors, so it is necessary to add an electronically conductive material such as carbon * To whom correspondence should be addressed. Phone and fax: (607) 777-4623. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. 4271 Chem. Rev. 2004, 104, 4271−4301
Kang Xu1•Institutions (1)
16 Sep 2004-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: The phytochemical properties of Lithium Hexafluoroarsenate and its Derivatives are as follows: 2.2.1.
Abstract: 2.1. Solvents 4307 2.1.1. Propylene Carbonate (PC) 4308 2.1.2. Ethers 4308 2.1.3. Ethylene Carbonate (EC) 4309 2.1.4. Linear Dialkyl Carbonates 4310 2.2. Lithium Salts 4310 2.2.1. Lithium Perchlorate (LiClO4) 4311 2.2.2. Lithium Hexafluoroarsenate (LiAsF6) 4312 2.2.3. Lithium Tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4) 4312 2.2.4. Lithium Trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiTf) 4312 2.2.5. Lithium Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiIm) and Its Derivatives 4313