Topic

# Local density of states

About: Local density of states is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3379 publications have been published within this topic receiving 76278 citations. The topic is also known as: LDOS.

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Bell Labs

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, a metal tip is scanned along the surface while ad justing its height to maintain constant vacuum tunneling current, and a contour map of the surface is generated.

Abstract: The recent development of the “scanning tunneling microscope” (STM) by Binnig et al. [8.1–5] has made possible the direct real-space imaging of surface topography. In this technique, a metal tip is scanned along the surface while ad justing its height to maintain constant vacuum tunneling current. The result is essentially a contour map of the surface. This contribution reviews the the ory [8.6–8] of STM, with illustrative examples. Because the microscopic structure of the tip is unknown, the tip wave functions are modeled as s-wave functions in the present approach [8.6, 7]. This approximation works best for small effective tip size. The tunneling current is found to be proportional to the surface local density of states (at the Fermi level), evaluated at the position of the tip. The effective resolution is roughly [2A(R+d)]1/2, where R is the effective tip radius and d is the gap distance. When applied to the 2x1 and 3x1 reconstructions of the Au(l10) surface, the theory gives excellent agreement with experiment [8.4] if a 9 A tip radius is assumed. For dealing with more complex or aperiodic surfaces, a crude but convenient calculational technique based on atom charge superposition is introduced; it reproduces the Au(l10) results reasonably well. This method is used to test the structure-sensitivity of STM. The Au(l10) image is found to be rather insensitive to the position of atoms beyond the first atomic layer.

3,192 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a scanning single-electron transistor is used to map the local density of states and the carrier density landscape in the vicinity of the neutrality point, and it is shown that electron-hole puddles can be quantitatively accounted for by considering noninteracting electrons and holes.

Abstract: The electronic structure of graphene causes its charge carriers to behave like relativistic particles. For a perfect graphene sheet free from impurities and disorder, the Fermi energy lies at the so-called ‘Dirac point’, where the density of electronic states vanishes. But in the inevitable presence of disorder, theory predicts that equally probable regions of electron-rich and hole-rich puddles will arise. These puddles could explain graphene’s anomalous non-zero minimal conductivity at zero average carrier density. Here, we use a scanning single-electron transistor to map the local density of states and the carrier density landscape in the vicinity of the neutrality point. Our results confirm the existence of electron–hole puddles, and rule out extrinsic substrate effects as explanations for their emergence and topology. Moreover, we find that, unlike non-relativistic particles the density of states can be quantitatively accounted for by considering non-interacting electrons and holes.

1,464 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: Tuning spectroscopy performed inside of the corrals revealed a series of discrete resonances, providing evidence for size quantization and STM images show that the corral's interior local density of states is dominated by the eigenstate density expected for an electron trapped in a round two-dimensional box.

Abstract: A method for confining electrons to artificial structures at the nanometer lengthscale is presented. Surface state electrons on a copper(111) surface were confined to closed structures (corrals) defined by barriers built from iron adatoms. The barriers were assembled by individually positioning iron adatoms with the tip of a 4-kelvin scanning tunneling microscope (STM). A circular corral of radius 71.3 A was constructed in this way out of 48 iron adatoms. Tunneling spectroscopy performed inside of the corral revealed a series of discrete resonances, providing evidence for size quantization. STM images show that the corral's interior local density of states is dominated by the eigenstate density expected for an electron trapped in a round two-dimensional box.

1,370 citations

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Bell Labs

^{1}TL;DR: A theory for tunneling between a real surface and a model probe tip, applicable to the recently developed "scanning tunneling microscope" is presented and it is concluded that for the AuOlO measurements the experimental "image" is relatively insensitive to the positions of atoms beyond the first atomic layer.

Abstract: The recent development of the “scanning tunneling microscope” (STM) by Binnig et al. [8.1–5] has made possible the direct real-space imaging of surface topography. In this technique, a metal tip is scanned along the surface while ad justing its height to maintain constant vacuum tunneling current. The result is essentially a contour map of the surface. This contribution reviews the the ory [8.6–8] of STM, with illustrative examples. Because the microscopic structure of the tip is unknown, the tip wave functions are modeled as s-wave functions in the present approach [8.6, 7]. This approximation works best for small effective tip size. The tunneling current is found to be proportional to the surface local density of states (at the Fermi level), evaluated at the position of the tip. The effective resolution is roughly [2A(R+d)]1/2, where R is the effective tip radius and d is the gap distance. When applied to the 2x1 and 3x1 reconstructions of the Au(l10) surface, the theory gives excellent agreement with experiment [8.4] if a 9 A tip radius is assumed. For dealing with more complex or aperiodic surfaces, a crude but convenient calculational technique based on atom charge superposition is introduced; it reproduces the Au(l10) results reasonably well. This method is used to test the structure-sensitivity of STM. The Au(l10) image is found to be rather insensitive to the position of atoms beyond the first atomic layer.

1,065 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, standing-wave patterns in the local density of states of the Cu(lll) surface using the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) at low temperature were observed.

Abstract: ELECTRONS occupying surface states on the close-packed surfaces of noble metals form a two-dimensional nearly free electron gas1–3. These states can be probed using the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM), providing a unique opportunity to study the local properties of electrons in low-dimensional systems4. Here we report the direct observation of standing-wave patterns in the local density of states of the Cu(lll) surface using the STM at low temperature. These spatial oscillations are quantum-mechanical interference patterns caused by scattering of the two-dimensional electron gas off step edges and point defects. Analysis of the spatial oscillations gives an independent measure of the surface state dispersion, as well as insight into the interaction between surface-state electrons and scattering sites on the surface.

950 citations