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Locus (genetics)

About: Locus (genetics) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 42778 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 2051321 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Cytogenetic location & loci.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: If enough data are available, genetic distance between any pair of organisms can be measured in terms of D, and this measure is applicable to any kind of organism without regard to ploidy or mating scheme.
Abstract: A measure of genetic distance (D) based on the identity of genes between populations is formulated. It is defined as D = -logeI, where I is the normalized identity of genes between two populations. This genetic distance measures the accumulated allele differences per locus. If the rate of gene substitution per year is constant, it is linearly related to the divergence time between populations under sexual isolation. It is also linearly related to geographical distance or area in some migration models. Since D is a measure of the accumulated number of codon differences per locus, it can also be estimated from data on amino acid sequences in proteins even for a distantly related species. Thus, if enough data are available, genetic distance between any pair of organisms can be measured in terms of D. This measure is applicable to any kind of organism without regard to ploidy or mating scheme.

8,481 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A method is presented by which the gene diversity (heterozygosity) of a subdivided population can be analyzed into its components, i.e., the gene diversities within and between subpopulations.
Abstract: A method is presented by which the gene diversity (heterozygosity) of a subdivided population can be analyzed into its components, i.e., the gene diversities within and between subpopulations. This method is applicable to any population without regard to the number of alleles per locus, the pattern of evolutionary forces such as mutation, selection, and migration, and the reproductive method of the organism used. Measures of the absolute and relative magnitudes of gene differentiation among subpopulations are also proposed.

8,066 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: A new basis for the construction of a genetic linkage map of the human genome is described, to develop, by recombinant DNA techniques, random single-copy DNA probes capable of detecting DNA sequence polymorphisms, when hybridized to restriction digests of an individual's DNA.
Abstract: We describe a new basis for the construction of a genetic linkage map of the human genome. The basic principle of the mapping scheme is to develop, by recombinant DNA techniques, random single-copy DNA probes capable of detecting DNA sequence polymorphisms, when hybridized to restriction digests of an individual's DNA. Each of these probes will define a locus. Loci can be expanded or contracted to include more or less polymorphism by further application of recombinant DNA technology. Suitably polymorphic loci can be tested for linkage relationships in human pedigrees by established methods; and loci can be arranged into linkage groups to form a true genetic map of "DNA marker loci." Pedigrees in which inherited traits are known to be segregating can then be analyzed, making possible the mapping of the gene(s) responsible for the trait with respect to the DNA marker loci, without requiring direct access to a specified gene's DNA. For inherited diseases mapped in this way, linked DNA marker loci can be used predictively for genetic counseling.

7,462 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
26 Mar 1993-Cell
Abstract: The Huntington's disease (HD) gene has been mapped in 4p16.3 but has eluded identification. We have used haplotype analysis of linkage disequilibrium to spotlight a small segment of 4p16.3 as the likely location of the defect. A new gene, 1715, isolated using cloned trapped exons from the target area contains a polymorphic trinucleotide repeat that is expanded and unstable on HD chromosomes. A (CAG)n repeat longer than the normal range was observed on HD chromosomes from all 75 disease families examined, comprising a variety of ethnic backgrounds and 4p 16.3 haplotypes. The (CAG)n repeat appears to be located within the coding sequence of a predicted ≈348 kd protein that is widely expressed but unrelated to any known gene. Thus, the HD mutation involves an unstable DNA segment, similar to those described in fragile X syndrome, spino-bulbar muscular atrophy, and myotonic dystrophy, acting in the context of a novel 4p16.3 gene to produce a dominant phenotype.

6,756 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
21 Feb 1991-Nature
Abstract: A locus segregating with familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been mapped to chromosome 21, close to the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene. Recombinants between the APP gene and the AD locus have been reported which seemed to exclude it as the site of the mutation causing familial AD. But recent genetic analysis of a large number of AD families has demonstrated that the disease is heterogeneous. Families with late-onset AD do not show linkage to chromosome 21 markers. Some families with early-onset AD show linkage to chromosome 21 markers, but some do not. This has led to the suggestion that there is non-allelic genetic heterogeneity even within early onset familial AD. To avoid the problems that heterogeneity poses for genetic analysis, we have examined the cosegregation of AD and markers along the long arm of chromosome 21 in a single family with AD confirmed by autopsy. Here we demonstrate that in this kindred, which shows linkage to chromosome 21 markers, there is a point mutation in the APP gene. This mutation causes an amino-acid substitution (Val----Ile) close to the carboxy terminus of the beta-amyloid peptide. Screening other cases of familial AD revealed a second unrelated family in which this variant occurs. This suggests that some cases of AD could be caused by mutations in the APP gene.

4,260 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20227
2021842
2020948
2019941
2018896
2017952

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Yusuke Nakamura

77 papers, 10.7K citations

Kenneth K. Kidd

53 papers, 3.7K citations

John A. Todd

47 papers, 5.9K citations

James F. Gusella

45 papers, 4.4K citations

Jean Weissenbach

45 papers, 5.1K citations