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Logical reasoning

About: Logical reasoning is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3405 publications have been published within this topic receiving 80320 citations.


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TL;DR: In this paper, a general model of conceptual change is proposed, which is largely derived from current philosophy of science, but which they believe can illuminate * This model is partly based on a paper entitled "Learning Special Relativity: A Study of Intellectual Problems Faced by College Students,” presented at the International Conference Celebrating the 100th Anniversary of Albert Einstein, November 8-10, 1979 at Hofstra University.
Abstract: It has become a commonplace belief that learning is the result of the interaction between what the student is taught and his current ideas or concepts.’ This is by no means a new view of learning. Its roots can be traced back to early Gestalt psychologists. However, Piaget’s (1929, 1930) early studies of children’s explanations of natural phenomena and his more recent studies of causality (Piaget, 1974) have perhaps had the greatest impact on the study of the interpretive frameworks students bring to learning situations. This research has led to the widespread study of students’ scientific misconceptions.2 From these studies and, particularly, from recent work by researchers such as Viennot ( 1979) and Driver (1 973), we have developed a more detailed understanding of some of these misconceptions and, more importantly, why they are so “highly robust” and typically outlive teaching which contradicts them (Viennot, 1979, p. 205). But identifying misconceptions or, more broadly speaking, “alternative frameworks” (Driver & Easley, 1978), and understanding some reasons for their persistence, falls short of developing a reasonable view of how a student’s current ideas interact with new, incompatible ideas. Although Piaget (1974) developed one such theory, there appears to be a need for work which focuses “more on the actual content of the pupil’s ideas and less on the supposed underlying logical structures” (Driver & Easley, 1978, p. 76). Several research studies have been performed (Nussbaum, 1979; Nussbaum & Novak, 1976; Driver, 1973; Erickson, 1979) which have investigated “the substance of the actual beliefs and concepts held by children” (Erickson, 1979, p. 221). However, there has been no well-articulated theory explaining or describing the substantive dimensions of the process by which people’s central, organizing concepts change from one set of concepts to another set, incompatible with the first. We believe that a major source of hypotheses concerning this issue is contemporary philosophy of science, since a central question of recent philosophy of science is how concepts change under the impact of new ideas or new information. In this article we first sketch a general model of conceptual change which is largely derived from current philosophy of science, but which we believe can illuminate * This article is partly based on a paper entitled “Learning Special Relativity: A Study of Intellectual Problems Faced by College Students,” presented at the International Conference Celebrating the 100th Anniversary of Albert Einstein, November 8-10, 1979 at Hofstra University.

5,052 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a series of experiments designed to test these hypotheses, using the Wason selection task, a test of logical reasoning, were presented, and the experimental design included eight critical tests designed to choose between social exchange theory and these other two families of theories.

1,852 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is argued that the subjects did not give evidence of having acquired the characteristics of Piaget's “formal operational thought,” and it is suggested that the difficulty is due to a mental set for expecting a relation of truth, correspondence, or match to hold between sentences and states of affairs.
Abstract: Two experiments were carried out to investigate the difficulty of making the contra-positive inference from conditional sentences of the form, “if P then Q.” This inference, that not-P follows from...

1,315 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202371
2022170
2021151
2020197
2019183
2018157