Topic

# Longest path problem

About: Longest path problem is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3264 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 102814 citation(s).

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TL;DR: A tree is a graph with one and only one path between every two nodes, where at least one path exists between any two nodes and the length of each branch is given.

Abstract: We consider n points (nodes), some or all pairs of which are connected by a branch; the length of each branch is given. We restrict ourselves to the case where at least one path exists between any two nodes. We now consider two problems. Problem 1. Constrnct the tree of minimum total length between the n nodes. (A tree is a graph with one and only one path between every two nodes.) In the course of the construction that we present here, the branches are subdivided into three sets: I. the branches definitely assignec~ to the tree under construction (they will form a subtree) ; II. the branches from which the next branch to be added to set I, will be selected ; III. the remaining branches (rejected or not yet considered). The nodes are subdivided into two sets: A. the nodes connected by the branches of set I, B. the remaining nodes (one and only one branch of set II will lead to each of these nodes), We start the construction by choosing an arbitrary node as the only member of set A, and by placing all branches that end in this node in set II. To start with, set I is empty. From then onwards we perform the following two steps repeatedly. Step 1. The shortest branch of set II is removed from this set and added to

21,172 citations

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TL;DR: The procedure was originally programmed in FORTRAN for the Control Data 160 desk-size computer and was limited to te t ra t ion because subroutine recursiveness in CONTROL Data 160 FORTRan has been held down to four levels in the interests of economy.

Abstract: procedure ari thmetic (a, b, c, op); in t eger a, b, c, op; ¢ o n l m e n t This procedure will perform different order ar i thmetic operations with b and c, put t ing the result in a. The order of the operation is given by op. For op = 1 addit ion is performed. For op = 2 multiplicaLion, repeated addition, is done. Beyond these the operations are non-commutat ive. For op = 3 exponentiat ion, repeated multiplication, is done, raising b to the power c. Beyond these the question of grouping is important . The innermost implied parentheses are at the right. The hyper-exponent is always c. For op = 4 te t ra t ion, repeated exponentiat ion, is done. For op = 5, 6, 7, etc., the procedure performs pentat ion, hexation, heptat ion, etc., respectively. The routine was originally programmed in FORTRAN for the Control Data 160 desk-size computer. The original program was limited to te t ra t ion because subroutine recursiveness in Control Data 160 FORTRAN has been held down to four levels in the interests of economy. The input parameter , b, c, and op, must be positive integers, not zero; b e g i n own i n t e g e r d, e, f, drop; i f o p = 1 t h e n b e g i n a := h-4c; go t o l e n d i f o p = 2 t h e n d := 0; else d := 1; e := c; drop := op 1; for f := I s t e p 1 u n t i l e do b e g i n ari thmetic (a, b, d, drop);

3,519 citations

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Abstract: How do real graphs evolve over timeq What are normal growth patterns in social, technological, and information networksq Many studies have discovered patterns in static graphs, identifying properties in a single snapshot of a large network or in a very small number of snapshots; these include heavy tails for in- and out-degree distributions, communities, small-world phenomena, and others. However, given the lack of information about network evolution over long periods, it has been hard to convert these findings into statements about trends over time.Here we study a wide range of real graphs, and we observe some surprising phenomena. First, most of these graphs densify over time with the number of edges growing superlinearly in the number of nodes. Second, the average distance between nodes often shrinks over time in contrast to the conventional wisdom that such distance parameters should increase slowly as a function of the number of nodes (like O(log n) or O(log(log n)).Existing graph generation models do not exhibit these types of behavior even at a qualitative level. We provide a new graph generator, based on a forest fire spreading process that has a simple, intuitive justification, requires very few parameters (like the flammability of nodes), and produces graphs exhibiting the full range of properties observed both in prior work and in the present study.We also notice that the forest fire model exhibits a sharp transition between sparse graphs and graphs that are densifying. Graphs with decreasing distance between the nodes are generated around this transition point.Last, we analyze the connection between the temporal evolution of the degree distribution and densification of a graph. We find that the two are fundamentally related. We also observe that real networks exhibit this type of relation between densification and the degree distribution.

2,197 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown that if the network is singly connected (e.g. tree-structured), then probabilities can be updated by local propagation in an isomorphic network of parallel and autonomous processors and that the impact of new information can be imparted to all propositions in time proportional to the longest path in the network.

Abstract: Belief networks are directed acyclic graphs in which the nodes represent propositions (or variables), the arcs signify direct dependencies between the linked propositions, and the strengths of these dependencies are quantified by conditional probabilities. A network of this sort can be used to represent the generic knowledge of a domain expert, and it turns into a computational architecture if the links are used not merely for storing factual knowledge but also for directing and activating the data flow in the computations which manipulate this knowledge. The first part of the paper deals with the task of fusing and propagating the impacts of new information through the networks in such a way that, when equilibrium is reached, each proposition will be assigned a measure of belief consistent with the axioms of probability theory. It is shown that if the network is singly connected (e.g. tree-structured), then probabilities can be updated by local propagation in an isomorphic network of parallel and autonomous processors and that the impact of new information can be imparted to all propositions in time proportional to the longest path in the network. The second part of the paper deals with the problem of finding a tree-structured representation for a collection of probabilistically coupled propositions using auxiliary (dummy) variables, colloquially called "hidden causes." It is shown that if such a tree-structured representation exists, then it is possible to uniquely uncover the topology of the tree by observing pairwise dependencies among the available propositions (i.e., the leaves of the tree). The entire tree structure, including the strengths of all internal relationships, can be reconstructed in time proportional to n log n, where n is the number of leaves.

2,150 citations

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[...]

01 Jan 1962

Abstract: Fundamental concepts Connectedness Path problems Trees Leaves and lobes The axiom of choice Matching theorems Directed graphs Acyclic graphs Partial order Binary relations and Galois correspondences Connecting paths Dominating sets, covering sets and independent sets Chromatic graphs Groups and graphs Bibliography List of concepts Index of names.

1,729 citations