Low-temperature thermal desalination
About: Low-temperature thermal desalination is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 996 publications have been published within this topic receiving 20690 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A process for converting sea water to fresh water in which a continuous stream of sea water is divided into desalted and concentrated streams by ion concentration polarization, which significantly reduces the possibility of membrane fouling and salt accumulation, thus avoiding two problems that plague other membrane filtration methods.
Abstract: A shortage of fresh water is one of the acute challenges facing the world today. An energy-efficient approach to converting sea water into fresh water could be of substantial benefit, but current desalination methods require high power consumption and operating costs or large-scale infrastructures, which make them difficult to implement in resource-limited settings or in disaster scenarios. Here, we report a process for converting sea water (salinity approximately 500 mM or approximately 30,000 mg l(-1)) to fresh water (salinity <10 mM or <600 mg l(-1)) in which a continuous stream of sea water is divided into desalted and concentrated streams by ion concentration polarization, a phenomenon that occurs when an ion current is passed through ion-selective membranes. During operation, both salts and larger particles (cells, viruses and microorganisms) are pushed away from the membrane (a nanochannel or nanoporous membrane), which significantly reduces the possibility of membrane fouling and salt accumulation, thus avoiding two problems that plague other membrane filtration methods. To implement this approach, a simple microfluidic device was fabricated and shown to be capable of continuous desalination of sea water (approximately 99% salt rejection at 50% recovery rate) at a power consumption of less than 3.5 Wh l(-1), which is comparable to current state-of-the-art systems. Rather than competing with larger desalination plants, the method could be used to make small- or medium-scale systems, with the possibility of battery-powered operation.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a state-of-the-art review on energy, water and environment interconnection and future energy efficient desalination possibilities to save energy and protect environment.
TL;DR: The use of solar energy in thermal desalination processes is one of the most promising applications of the renewable energies as discussed by the authors, however, it requires large land areas and has a relatively low productivity.
TL;DR: Nanophotonics-enabled solar membrane distillation (NESMD) is demonstrated, where highly localized photothermal heating induced by solar illumination alone drives the distillation process, entirely eliminating the requirement of heating the input water.
Abstract: With more than a billion people lacking accessible drinking water, there is a critical need to convert nonpotable sources such as seawater to water suitable for human use. However, energy requirements of desalination plants account for half their operating costs, so alternative, lower energy approaches are equally critical. Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential due to its low operating temperature and pressure requirements, but the requirement of heating the input water makes it energy intensive. Here, we demonstrate nanophotonics-enabled solar membrane distillation (NESMD), where highly localized photothermal heating induced by solar illumination alone drives the distillation process, entirely eliminating the requirement of heating the input water. Unlike MD, NESMD can be scaled to larger systems and shows increased efficiencies with decreased input flow velocities. Along with its increased efficiency at higher ambient temperatures, these properties all point to NESMD as a promising solution for household- or community-scale desalination.
TL;DR: In this paper, a critical review of membrane distillation is presented, focusing on applications for sustainable water production and on issues that must be addressed to improve the performance of MD desalination systems.
Abstract: Membrane distillation (MD) is a promising separation technology that can help reducing the worldwide water-energy stress in a sustainable way MD uses low-grade thermal energy to drive desalination, to remove non-volatile contaminants or to recover other components In MD, the vapor from an aqueous solution crosses a hydrophobic membrane and then it condensates at the other side of the membrane, resulting in a high-quality distillate Recent advances in MD have demonstrated the viability of this technology for different water purification applications This article presents a critical review of MD that focuses on applications for sustainable water production and on issues that must be addressed to improve the performance of MD desalination systems To achieve sustainable desalination, different MD systems powered by solar, geothermal, and waste energy have been designed and evaluated, as well as hybrid systems that allow accomplishing zero liquid discharge To achieve improved desalination, new membranes, membrane modules and MD configurations have been proposed in the last years Membrane fouling and scaling has been found to be one of the main issues that limits MD at large-scale Research gaps are highlighted and areas for further research – in terms of sustainability and to improve the performance of MD systems– are proposed
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