About: LPWAN is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 765 publications have been published within this topic receiving 11144 citations.
TL;DR: An overview of LoRa and an in-depth analysis of its functional components are provided and some possible solutions for performance enhancements are proposed.
Abstract: LoRa is a long-range, low-power, low-bitrate, wireless telecommunications system, promoted as an infrastructure solution for the Internet of Things: end-devices use LoRa across a single wireless hop to communicate to gateway(s), connected to the Internet and which act as transparent bridges and relay messages between these end-devices and a central network server. This paper provides an overview of LoRa and an in-depth analysis of its functional components. The physical and data link layer performance is evaluated by field tests and simulations. Based on the analysis and evaluations, some possible solutions for performance enhancements are proposed.
TL;DR: It is shown that Sigfox and LoRa are advantageous in terms of battery lifetime, capacity, and cost, and NB-IoT offers benefits interms of latency and quality of service.
Abstract: By 2020, more than 50 billion devices will be connected through radio communications. In conjunction with the rapid growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) market, low power wide area networks (LPWAN) have become a popular low-rate long-range radio communication technology. Sigfox, LoRa, and NB-IoT are the three leading LPWAN technologies that compete for large-scale IoT deployment. This paper provides a comprehensive and comparative study of these technologies, which serve as efficient solutions to connect smart, autonomous, and heterogeneous devices. We show that Sigfox and LoRa are advantageous in terms of battery lifetime, capacity, and cost. Meanwhile, NB-IoT offers benefits in terms of latency and quality of service. In addition, we analyze the IoT success factors of these LPWAN technologies, and we consider application scenarios and explain which technology is the best fit for each of these scenarios.
TL;DR: This article introduces a new type of wireless connectivity, characterized by low-rate, long-range transmission technologies in the unlicensed sub-gigahertz frequency bands, used to realize access networks with star topology referred to as low-power WANs (LPWANs).
Abstract: Connectivity is probably the most basic building block of the IoT paradigm. Up to now, the two main approaches to provide data access to things have been based on either multihop mesh networks using short-range communication technologies in the unlicensed spectrum, or long-range legacy cellular technologies, mainly 2G/GSM/GPRS, operating in the corresponding licensed frequency bands. Recently, these reference models have been challenged by a new type of wireless connectivity, characterized by low-rate, long-range transmission technologies in the unlicensed sub-gigahertz frequency bands, used to realize access networks with star topology referred to as low-power WANs (LPWANs). In this article, we introduce this new approach to provide connectivity in the IoT scenario, discussing its advantages over the established paradigms in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, and architectural design, particularly for typical smart city applications.
•18 May 2016
TL;DR: The performance metrics of a single LoRaWAN end device, namely uplink throughput and data transmission time, are derived and few issues which need to be taken into account when making an application using LoRa or deploying a LoRa network are pointed out.
Abstract: In this paper we discuss and analyze the recently proposed LoRa low power wide area network (LPWAN) technology when used under the European frequency regulations First of all, we derive the performance metrics of a single LoRaWAN end device, namely uplink throughput and data transmission time Then we analyze for several illustrative application scenarios the maximum number of end devices which can be served by a single LoRaWAN base station and discuss the spatial distribution of these devices It is shown that subject to the channel composition and application requirements, a single cell may include several millions of devices Also, we show that the capacity of the uplink channel available to a LoRaWAN node strongly depends on the distance from the base station and does not exceed 2 kbit/s In the concluding section we summarize and discuss the obtained results, and point out few issues which need to be taken into account when making an application using LoRa or deploying a LoRa network
••15 Feb 2016
TL;DR: A performance and capability analysis of a currently available LoRa transceiver is presented and it is demonstrated how unique features such as concurrent non-destructive transmissions and carrier detection can be employed in a wide-area application scenario.
Abstract: New transceiver technologies have emerged which enable power efficient communication over very long distances. Examples of such Low-Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN) technologies are LoRa, Sigfox and Weightless. A typical application scenario for these technologies is city wide meter reading collection where devices send readings at very low frequency over a long distance to a data concentrator (one-hop networks). We argue that these transceivers are potentially very useful to construct more generic Internet of Things (IoT) networks incorporating multi-hop bidirectional communication enabling sensing and actuation. Furthermore, these transceivers have interesting features not available with more traditional transceivers used for IoT networks which enable construction of novel protocol elements. In this paper we present a performance and capability analysis of a currently available LoRa transceiver. We describe its features and then demonstrate how such transceiver can be put to use efficiently in a wide-area application scenario. In particular we demonstrate how unique features such as concurrent non-destructive transmissions and carrier detection can be employed. Our deployment experiment demonstrates that 6 LoRa nodes can form a network covering 1.5 ha in a built up environment, achieving a potential lifetime of 2 year on 2 AA batteries and delivering data within 5 s and reliability of 80%.
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