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Lygodium

About: Lygodium is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 89 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1408 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Hagnaya.


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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The ecology of Cainozoic ferns is documented (excluding that based only on nearest living relatives). Free-floating water ferns (of the modern genera Azolla and Salvinia ) are widespread in the Cainozoic. They are represented by whole plants and dispersed or interconnected megaspores and microspore massulae in freshwater facies associated with a range of aquatic angiosperms. Acrostichum (a fern characteristic of mangroves today) was clearly associated with lakes and freshwater marshes in the Cainozoic. In southern England an Acrostichum / Typha association existed comparable to that which is rare today, e.g. in the Florida Everglades. Other Cainozoic ferns also grew at the margins of lakes and in mires, especially well-represented by the Princeton Chert flora (Dennstaedtiaceae, Dryopteridaceae, blechnoids and Osmunda ). In North America ferns such as Onoclea and Osmunda were associates of freshwater swamp forests dominated by taxodiaceous trees. These ferns, along with Woodwardia and the extinct Coniopteris , had a Cainozoic circum-Arctic distribution to very high palaeolatitudes. The Eocene fern flora of Yellowstone National Park, USA, grew in a disturbed volcanogenic terrain but the same ferns also occurred in backswamp settings. Gleicheniaceae were part of a fire-prone vegetation in the Miocene of Australia but other Cainozoic Gleicheniaceae are very poorly understood. Relatively little is known about the Cainozoic ecology of the Marattiaceae, Matoniaceae, Dipteridaceae, Dicksoniaceae and Cyatheaceae despite their Mesozoic importance. The Cainozoic record of tree ferns (proven by stem fossils) is very patchy but does include members of the Cyatheaceae, Dicksoniaceae and Osmundaceae ( Aurealcaulis , which grew in swampy floodplain forests). Although the epiphytic habit had evolved in extinct families of ferns in the Carboniferous there is no convincing evidence for fossils of epiphytic ferns in the Cainozoic. The fern Lygodium (for which a climbing habit is often inferred from morphological similarity with modern Lygodium ) was widespread in the Cainozoic in North America, Chile, Europe, Australia and probably China. However, there are no rachis fossils to confirm or refute the interpretation that Palaeogene to Miocene Lygodium was a climber.

113 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ecological problems associated with the fern and its naturalization and spread, probable origin, and potential to spread, and the control attempts to date are discussed, including the potential of biological control to reduce populations of this plant and to limit its spread.
Abstract: -Lygodium microphyllum, a native of the warm and wet regions of the Old World, was first detected to be naturalized in southeastern Florida in 1965. This fern has become an aggressive invader of natural vegetation in many different habitats that are frequently dominated by the weed. Aerial surveys conducted in 1993, 1995, and 1997 detected increasing densities and continued expansion of its distribution in Florida. The fern is expected to continue to increase in Florida and could spread by spores to suitable habitats in Texas and Mexico. No effective method of control for the plant exists. Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br. (Schizaeaceae), or Old World climbing fern, is native to wet tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World. It has become a serious weed in southeastern Florida, where it is increasing in density and range. In the present paper we discuss the ecological problems associated with the fern and its naturalization and spread, probable origin, and potential to spread, and the control attempts to date. The companion paper (Pemberton, 1998) discusses the potential of biological control to reduce populations of this plant and to limit its spread. The fern's native distribution and taxonomic relations, both essential information for a biological control program, are also reported.

110 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The mixed mating system observed in L. microphyllum appears to give this species the ability to invade distant habitats and then adapt to local conditions, which has likely facilitated their ability to colonize and spread through Florida.
Abstract: The effect of culture system and population source on sexual expression and sporophyte production was examined for two invasive fern species in Florida, USA, Lygodium microphyllumand L. japonicum (Schizaeaceae). Both species are currently spreading through Florida. Long-distance dispersal of ferns is thought to rely on successful intragametophytic selfing. Given the rate of spread observed in both Lygodium species, we hypothesized that both species are capable of intragametophytic selfing. To test this hypothesis, gametophytes of both species were grown in vitro as isolates, pairs, and groups. Both species were capable of intragametophytic selfing; 78% of L. microphyllum isolates produced sporophytes and over 90% of the L. japonicum isolates produced sporophytes. Lygodium microphyllum also displayed the ability to reproduce via intergametophytic crossing, facilitated by an antheridiogen pheromone. Sporophyte production was rapid across mating systems for both species, an advantage in Florida’s wet and dry seasonal cycles. The high intragametophytic selfing rate achieved by both species has likely facilitated their ability to colonize and spread through Florida. The mixed mating system observed in L. microphyllum appears to give this species the ability to invade distant habitats and then adapt to local conditions.

77 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Placement of Psilotum in a class of its own receives no support from the mitochondrial sequences, which rather suggest its inclusion among eusporangiate ferns (Ophioglossales).
Abstract: A conserved coding region of the mitochondrial nad5 gene (1098–1107 bp of protein coding sequence) was amplified from 30 pteridophytes (26 ferns and 4 fern allies). A group II intron sequence conserved in all ferns except the eu-sporangiate genus Ophioglossum is also present in the whisk fern Psilotum nudum and the lycopod Huperzia selogo, but absent from the horsetails (Equisetum), the seed plants and the bryo-phytes. Phylogenetic trees constructed with different methods consistently suggest several monophyletic units. The conserved group II intron sequence provides valuable additional phylogenetic information. Leptosporangiate ferns are monophyletic with Osmunda as the basal-most branching genus followed by Trichomanes, Matonia and Lygodium. These genera are set distantly apart from other leptosporangiate ferns, including the tree and water ferns, which branch in close proximity. Species of Polypodiaceae, Dryopteridaceae, Thelypteridaceae, Aspleniaceae and Blechnaceae appear in a monophyletic crown group of derived leptosporangiate ferns with Dryopteridaceae as a paraphyletic taxon. Placement of Psilotum in a class of its own receives no support from the mitochondrial sequences, which rather suggest its inclusion among eusporangiate ferns (Ophioglossales). RNA editing is required to correct the genetic information of the nad5 gene in all species investigated and includes the removal of stop codons from the reading frames. The influence of RNA editing on phylogenetic tree construction is investigated and discussed.

68 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The eriophyid mite F. perrepae shows the greatest potential for biological control based on field surveys and initial laboratory observations; however, future studies must identify mite genotypes that are best adapted to the invasive Florida form of the fern.
Abstract: Lygodium microphyllum, Old World climbing fern, is native to the wet tropics and subtropics of the Old World and an invasive weed in southern Florida. Exploration for natural enemies of this weed was conducted between 1997 and 2002 in Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Caledonia, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Two species of mites and 20 insect species were collected. The eriophyid mite, Floracarus perrepae Knihinicki and Boczek, was the most widely distributed and appeared to cause significant damage to the plant over time. Several unique geographical genotypes of F. perrepae were identified. Other promising candidates for further research are the musotimine pyralid species, Neomusotima conspurcatalis Warren, Cataclysta camptozonale Hampson, Cataclysta sp. 2, and Musotima sp., all leaf-feeders, as well as the stem-borer Ambia sp. All of the herbivores collected, except the eriophyid, typically occurred at low field densities. The pyralid species may reach high densities and cause great damage in Florida in the absence of their co-evolved natural enemies. The mite F. perrepae shows the greatest potential for biological control based on field surveys and initial laboratory observations; however, future studies must identify mite genotypes that are best adapted to the invasive Florida form of the fern. Published by Elsevier Science (USA).

68 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20221
20213
20202
20193
20182
20174