About: Macaque is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3353 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 134506 citation(s). The topic is also known as: macaques.
01 May 1983-Journal of Neurophysiology
TL;DR: The presence of both direction and speed selectivity in MT of the macaque suggests that this area is more specialized for the analysis of visual motion than has been previously recognized.
Abstract: 1. Recordings were made from single units in the middle temporal visual area (MT) of anesthetized, paralyzed macaque monkeys. A computer-driven stimulator was used to make quantitative tests of sel...
01 Jan 1997-Journal of Neurophysiology
TL;DR: The role of attention was examined in areas V1, V2, and V4 of macaque monkeys with the use of a behavioral paradigm in which attention was directed to one of two stimulus locations and it was found that the cell's response was strongly influenced by which of the two stimuli was attended.
Abstract: Luck, Steven J., Leonardo Chelazzi, Steven A. Hillyard, and Robert Desimone. Neural mechanisms of spatial selective attention in areas V1, V2, and V4 of macaque visual cortex. J. Neurophysiol. 77: ...
01 Jan 1977-
TL;DR: By four independent anatomical methods it has been shown that these columns have an ocular dominance column all cells respond preferentially to the same eye, in that cells with common physiological properties are grouped together in vertically organized systems of columns.
Abstract: Of the many possible functions of the macaque monkey primary visual cortex (striate cortex, area 17) two are now fairly well understood. First, the incoming information from the lateral geniculate bodies is rearranged so that most cells in the striate cortex respond to specifically oriented line segments, and, second, information originating from the two eyes converges upon single cells. The rearrangement and convergence do not take place immediately, however: in layer IV c, where the bulk of the afferents terminate, virtually all cells have fields with circular symmetry and are strictly monocular, driven from the left eye or from the right, but not both; at subsequent stages, in layers above and below IV c, most cells show orientation specificity, and about half are binocular. In a binocular cell the receptive fields in the two eyes are on corresponding regions in the two retinas and are identical in structure, but one eye is usually more effective than the other in influencing the cell; all shades of ocular dominance are seen. These two functions are strongly reflected in the architecture of the cortex, in that cells with common physiological properties are grouped together in vertically organized systems of columns. In an ocular dominance column all cells respond preferentially to the same eye. By four independent anatomical methods it has been shown that these columns have the
01 Feb 2000-Nature Medicine
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that antibodies can affect transmission and subsequent disease course after vaginal SHIV-challenge, and the data begin to define the type of antibody response that could play a role in protection against mucosal transmission of HIV-1.
Abstract: The development of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) chimeric virus macaque model (SHIV) permits the in vivo evaluation of anti-HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein immune responses. Using this model, others, and we have shown that passively infused antibody can protect against an intravenous challenge. However, HIV-1 is most often transmitted across mucosal surfaces and the intravenous challenge model may not accurately predict the role of antibody in protection against mucosal exposure. After controlling the macaque estrous cycle with progesterone, anti-HIV-1 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies 2F5 and 2G12, and HIV immune globulin were tested. Whereas all five control monkeys displayed high plasma viremia and rapid CD4 cell decline, 14 antibody-treated macaques were either completely protected against infection or against pathogenic manifestations of SHIV-infection. Infusion of all three antibodies together provided the greatest amount of protection, but a single monoclonal antibody, with modest virus neutralizing activity, was also protective. Compared with our previous intravenous challenge study with the same virus and antibodies, the data indicated that greater protection was achieved after vaginal challenge. This study demonstrates that antibodies can affect transmission and subsequent disease course after vaginal SHIV-challenge; the data begin to define the type of antibody response that could play a role in protection against mucosal transmission of HIV-1.
13 Apr 2007-Science
TL;DR: The genome sequence of an Indian-origin Macaca mulatta female is determined and compared with chimpanzees and humans to reveal the structure of ancestral primate genomes and to identify evidence for positive selection and lineage-specific expansions and contractions of gene families.
Abstract: The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied biomedical research. We determined the genome sequence of an Indian-origin Macaca mulatta female and compared the data with chimpanzees and humans to reveal the structure of ancestral primate genomes and to identify evidence for positive selection and lineage-specific expansions and contractions of gene families. A comparison of sequences from individual animals was used to investigate their underlying genetic diversity. The complete description of the macaque genome blueprint enhances the utility of this animal model for biomedical research and improves our understanding of the basic biology of the species.