Topic

# Mach wave

About: Mach wave is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3664 publications have been published within this topic receiving 64114 citations.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the growth rate and turbulent structure of the compressible, plane shear layer are investigated experimentally in a novel facility, where it is possible to flow similar or dissimilar gases of different densities and to select different Mach numbers for each stream.

Abstract: The growth rate and turbulent structure of the compressible, plane shear layer are investigated experimentally in a novel facility. In this facility, it is possible to flow similar or dissimilar gases of different densities and to select different Mach numbers for each stream. Ten combinations of gases and Mach numbers are studied in which the free-stream Mach numbers range from 0.2 to 4. Schlieren photography of 20-ns exposure time reveals very low spreading rates and large-scale structures. The growth of the turbulent region is defined by means of Pitot-pressure profiles measured at several streamwise locations. A compressibility-effect parameter is defined that correlates and unifies the experimental results. It is the Mach number in a coordinate system convecting with the velocity of the dominant waves and structures of the shear layer, called here the convective Mach number. It happens to have nearly the same value for each stream. In the current experiments, it ranges from 0 to 1.9. The correlations of the growth rate with convective Mach number fall approximately onto one curve when the growth rate is normalized by its incompressible value at the same velocity and density ratios. The normalized growth rate, which is unity for incompressible flow, decreases rapidly with increasing convective Mach number, reaching an asymptotic vaue of about 0.2 for supersonic convective Mach numbers.

1,506 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors used numerical simulations to investigate the resonant instabilities in two-dimensional flow past an open cavity and showed a transition from a shear-layer mode to a wake mode for longer cavities and higher Mach numbers.

Abstract: Numerical simulations are used to investigate the resonant instabilities in two-dimensional flow past an open cavity. The compressible Navier–Stokes equations are solved directly (no turbulence model) for cavities with laminar boundary layers upstream. The computational domain is large enough to directly resolve a portion of the radiated acoustic field, which is shown to be in good visual agreement with schlieren photographs from experiments at several different Mach numbers. The results show a transition from a shear-layer mode, primarily for shorter cavities and lower Mach numbers, to a wake mode for longer cavities and higher Mach numbers. The shear-layer mode is characterized well by the acoustic feedback process described by Rossiter (1964), and disturbances in the shear layer compare well with predictions based on linear stability analysis of the Kelvin–Helmholtz mode. The wake mode is characterized instead by a large-scale vortex shedding with Strouhal number independent of Mach number. The wake mode oscillation is similar in many ways to that reported by Gharib & Roshko (1987) for incompressible flow with a laminar upstream boundary layer. Transition to wake mode occurs as the length and/or depth of the cavity becomes large compared to the upstream boundary-layer thickness, or as the Mach and/or Reynolds numbers are raised. Under these conditions, it is shown that the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability grows to sufficient strength that a strong recirculating flow is induced in the cavity. The resulting mean flow is similar to wake profiles that are absolutely unstable, and absolute instability may provide an explanation of the hydrodynamic feedback mechanism that leads to wake mode. Predictive criteria for the onset of shear-layer oscillations (from steady flow) and for the transition to wake mode are developed based on linear theory for amplification rates in the shear layer, and a simple model for the acoustic efficiency of edge scattering.

495 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a limiting system of equations to describe combustion processes at low Mach number in either confined or unbounded regions and numerically solve these equations for the case of a flame propagating in a closed vessel, which allows for large heat release, substantial temperature and density variations, and substantial interaction with the hydrodynamic flow field, including the effects of turbulence.

Abstract: We present a limiting system of equations to describe combustion processes at low Mach number in either confined or unbounded regions and numerically solve these equations for the case of a flame propagating in a closed vessel. This system allows for large heat release, substantial temperature and density variations, and substantial interaction with the hydrodynamic flow field, including the effects of turbulence. This limiting system is much simpler than the complete system of equations of compressible reacting gas flow since the detailed effects of acoustic waves have been removed. Using a combination of random vortex techniques and flame propagation algorithms specially designed for turbulent combustion, we describe a numerical method to solve these zero Mach number equations. We use this method to analyze the competing effects of viscosity, exothermicity, boundary conditions and pressure on the rate of combustion for a flame propagating in a swirling flow inside a square.

478 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the development of a new flux-splitting approach for perfect-gas reacting-gas Navier-Stokes computations is presented, which is designed to capture a stationary contact discontinuity without excess numerical diffusion while providing a monotone resolution of strong normal shock waves.

Abstract: The development of a new flux-splitting approach for perfect-gas reacting-gas Navier-Stokes computations is presented in this work Three distinct variants are proposed, each of which is designed to capture a stationary contact discontinuity without excess numerical diffusion while providing a monotone resolution of strong normal shock waves The variants differ in their resolution of strong oblique shock waves and in their performance for unsteady flow situations A straightforward extension of the methods to general flows in thermo-chemical non-equilibrium is also proposed, and the construction of robust approximate linearizations of the schemes is discussed Comparisons of the new splittings with other upwinding techniques are presented for four steady-state test cases: Mach 8 viscous flow over a 15 ° wedge (perfect gas), Mach 6 viscous flow over a cone-flare configuration (perfect gas), Mach 16 viscous flow over a cylinder (five-species reacting-air), and a subsonic reacting shear layer (seven-species hydrogen-air chemistry) Shock tube simulations are also performed to ascertain the effectiveness of the schemes for unsteady flow situations It is shown that the new methods combine the desirable traits of more sophisticated Godunov-type schemes in the resolution of discontinuities with the robustness and simplicity of flux-vector splittings

476 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, an asymptotic analysis in power of the Mach number of the flux difference splitting approximation of the compressible Euler equations in the low Mach number limit is presented.

Abstract: This paper presents an asymptotic analysis in power of the Mach number of the flux difference splitting approximation of the compressible Euler equations in the low Mach number limit. We prove that the solutions of the discrete system contain pressure fluctuations of order of the Mach number while the continuous pressure scales with the square of the Mach number. This explains in a rigorous manner why this approximation of the compressible equations fails to compute very subsonic flow. We then show that a preconditioning of the numerical dissipation tensor allows to recover a correct scaling of the pressure. These theoretical results are totally confirmed by numerical experiments.

461 citations