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Mach–Zehnder interferometer

About: Mach–Zehnder interferometer is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 6536 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 86895 citation(s).


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that the uncertainty in the relative quantum phase of two fields propagating in the arms of a Mach-Zehnder interferometers can be reduced to the Heisenberg limit by driving the interferometer with two Fock states containing equal numbers of photons.
Abstract: We show that the uncertainty in the relative quantum phase of two fields propagating in the arms of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer can be reduced to the Heisenberg limit by driving the interferometer with two Fock states containing equal numbers of photons. This leads to a minimum detectable phase shift far below that of any interferometer driven by a coherent light source.

598 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The boson-sampling problem was demonstrated by studying three-photon interference in a five-mode integrated interferometer containing three-dimensional S-bent waveguides. Three single photons were input into the interferometer and the probability ratios of all events were measured. The results agree with quantum mechanical predictions for three-photon interference.

593 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: An approach to achieve simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature is proposed by using a Mach–Zehnder interferometer realized on tapered single-mode optical fiber. The attenuation peak wavelength of the interference with specific order in the transmission spectrum shifts with changes in the environmental refractive index and temperature. By utilizing S-band and C/L-band light sources, simultaneous discrimination of refractive index and temperature with the tapered fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer is demonstrated with the corresponding sensitivities of −23.188 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and 0.071 nm/ °C, and −26.087 nm/RIU (blueshift) and 0.077 nm/°C (redshift) for the interference orders of 169 and 144, respectively.

500 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: As potential applications of the all-PCF interferometer, strain sensing is experimentally demonstrated and ultra-high temperature sensing is proposed.
Abstract: We propose simple and compact methods for implementing all-fiber interferometers. The interference between the core and the cladding modes of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is utilized. To excite the cladding modes from the fundamental core mode of a PCF, a coupling point or region is formed by using two methods. One is fusion splicing two pieces of a PCF with a small lateral offset, and the other is partially collapsing the air-holes in a single piece of PCF. By making another coupling point at a different location along the fiber, the proposed all-PCF interferometer is implemented. The spectral response of the interferometer is investigated mainly in terms of its wavelength spectrum. The spatial frequency of the spectrum was proportional to the physical length of the interferometer and the difference between the modal group indices of involved waveguide modes. For the splicing type interferometer, only a single spatial frequency component was dominantly observed, while the collapsing type was associated with several components at a time. By analyzing the spatial frequency spectrum of the wavelength spectrum, the modal group index differences of the PCF were obtained from 2.83×10-3 to 4.65 ×10-3 . As potential applications of the all-PCF interferometer, strain sensing is experimentally demonstrated and ultra-high temperature sensing is proposed.

400 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper describes the design, fabrication and testing of a pigtailed integrated optical (IO) phase-modulated Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) including both the optical chip and the electronics. The optical chip is realised in SiON technology. The IO components (the sensing function, the straight waveguiding channels, the phase modulator, the polariser, the splitter, the combiner and the fibre-to-chip connection unit) are individually optimised and interconnected by using transversal adiabatic tapers. To obtain a high waveguide evanescent field sensitivity, the sensor is designed for — but not limited to — a wavelength of 632.8 nm. The integrated MZI is actively phase-modulated by virtue of the electro-optic effect of the incorporated material zinc oxide (ZnO). The electro-optical voltage–length product Vπ is 16 V cm at frequencies above 10 Hz. The polariser is a distributed function, that effectively filters TM-polarised light (TE/TM polarising ratio >30 dB). The fibre pigtail, affording remote optical sensing, is based on a cheap, easy-to-use fibre-to-chip connection with a typical coupling efficiency of 50%, while the device throughput (“insertion loss”) is −20 dB. The drive- and demodulation electronics enable a phase resolution 5×10−5×2π, corresponding to a refractive index resolution of 2×10−8. The sensing system as has been realised up to now shows a phase resolution of 1×10−4×2π, its long-term stability (hours) being ≤3×10−4×2π. This corresponds to a refractive index resolution of 5×10−8, and a long-term stability of 10−7.

340 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20227
2021224
2020249
2019305
2018312
2017340