About: Macrophomina phaseolina is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2102 publications have been published within this topic receiving 26621 citations.
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TL;DR: Seven bacterial isolates screened from rhizosphere of common bean growing at Uttarakhand Himalaya showed potential plant growth promoting (PGP) and antagonistic activities of Bacillus sp.
Abstract: Seven bacterial isolates screened from rhizosphere of common bean growing at Uttarakhand Himalaya showed potential plant growth promoting (PGP) and antagonistic activities. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence the isolate BPR7 was identified as Bacillus sp. BPR7. The strain BPR7 produced IAA, siderophore, phytase, organic acid, ACC deaminase, cyanogens, lytic enzymes, oxalate oxidase, and solubilized various sources of organic and inorganic phosphates as well as potassium and zinc. Strain BPR7 strongly inhibited the growth of several phytopathogens such as Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani and Colletotricum sp. in vitro. Cell-free culture filtrate of strain BPR7 also caused colony growth inhibition of all test pathogens. PGP and antifungal activities of Bacillus sp. BPR7 suggest that it may be exploited as a potential bioinoculant agent for P. vulgaris.
TL;DR: The obtained results clearly suggest that silver nanoparticles may have important applications in controlling various plant diseases caused by fungi.
Abstract: In this present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by green chemistry approach using Acalypha indica leaf extract as reducing agents. The reaction medium employed in the synthesis process was optimized to attain better yield, controlled size and stability. Further, the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were conformed through UV-vis spectrum, XRD and HR-TEM analyses. Different concentration of silver nanoparticles were tested to know the inhibitory effect of fungal plant pathogens namely Alternaria alternata, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Curvularia lunata. Interestingly, 15 mg concentration of silver nanoparticles showed excellent inhibitory activity against all the tested pathogens. Thus, the obtained results clearly suggest that silver nanoparticles may have important applications in controlling various plant diseases caused by fungi.
TL;DR: The possible exploitation of the Chenopodium oil as potential botanical fungitoxicant in ecofriendly control of post harvest biodeterioration of food commodities from storage fungi is suggested.
Abstract: Essential oil extracted from the leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. (Chenopodiaceae) was tested against the aflatoxigenic strain of test fungus Aspergillus flavus Link. The oil completely inhibited the mycelial growth at 100 μg/ml. The oil exhibited broad fungitoxic spectrum against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum, Sclerotium rolfsii, Macrophomina phaseolina, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Helminthosporium oryzae and Pythium debaryanum at 100 μg/ml. The oil showed significant efficacy in inhibiting the aflatoxin B1 production by the aflatoxigenic strain of A. flavus. During in vivo investigation it protected stored wheat from different storage fungi for one year. Chenopodium oil also exhibited potent antioxidant activity when tested by ABTS method. All these observations suggest the possible exploitation of the Chenopodium oil as potential botanical fungitoxicant in ecofriendly control of post harvest biodeterioration of food commodities from storage fungi.
TL;DR: From this study, it is evident that chitosan based nanoparticles particularly ch itosan and Cu-chitOSan nanoparticles have tremendous potential for further field screening towards crop protection.
Abstract: The main aim of present study was to prepare chitosan, chitosan-saponin and Cu-chitosan nanoparticles to evaluate their in vitro antifungal activities. Various nanoparticles were prepared using ionic gelation method by interaction of chitosan, sodium tripolyphosphate, saponin and Cu ions. Their particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and structures were confirmed by DLS, FTIR, TEM and SEM. The antifungal properties of nanoparticles against phytopathogenic fungi namely Alternaria alternata, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani were investigated at various concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 0.1%. Among the various formulations of nanoparticles, Cu-chitosan nanoparticles were found most effective at 0.1% concentration and showed 89.5, 63.0 and 60.1% growth inhibition of A. alternata, M. phaseolina and R. solani, respectively in in vitro model. At the same concentration, Cu-chitosan nanoparticles also showed maximum of 87.4% inhibition rate of spore germination of A. alternata. Chitosan nanoparticles showed the maximum growth inhibitory effects (87.6%) on in vitro mycelial growth of M. phaseolina at 0.1% concentration. From our study it is evident that chitosan based nanoparticles particularly chitosan and Cu-chitosan nanoparticles have tremendous potential for further field screening towards crop protection.
TL;DR: Detailed disease loss estimates were compiled for the 1998 harvested crop from the top 10 soybean-producing countries in the world to provide more effective preventive and therapeutic disease management strategies and systems to producers.
Abstract: Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) disease loss estimates were compiled for the 1998 harvested crop from the top 10 soybean-producing countries in the world. These 10 countries (United States, Brazil, China, Argentina, India, Canada, Paraguay, Indonesia, Italy, and Bolivia) produced 97.6% of the world's total soybean crop in 1998. Total yield losses caused by soybean cyst [Heterodera glycines Ichinohe] in these 10 countries were greater than those caused by any other disease. Next in decreasing order of total yield reduction were brown spot [Septoria glycines (Hemmi)], charcoal rot [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goidanich], and sclerotinia stem rot [Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary]. The total yield loss due to diseases in these countries in 1998 was 28.5 × 106 t, valued at U.S. $6.29 × 109. Yield losses due to specific diseases varied by country. For example, yield losses due to rust were reported only from China and Indonesia. Soybean disease controls are needed to provide more effective preventi...
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