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Magnetic dipole

About: Magnetic dipole is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 15730 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 324730 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI
I. Dzyaloshinsky1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A thermodynamic theory of “weak” ferromagnetism of α-Fe 2 O 3 , MnCO 3 and CoCO 3 is developed on the basis of landau's theory of phase transitions of the second kind. It is shown that the “weak” ferromagnetism is due to the relativistic spin-lattice and the magnetic dipole interactions. A strong dependence of the properties of “weak” ferromagnetics on the magnetic crystalline symmetry is noted and the behaviour of these ferromagnetics in a magnetic field is studied.

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3,916 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Hans A. Bethe1Institutions (1)
01 Oct 1944-Physical Review
Abstract: The diffraction of electromagnetic radiation by a hole small compared with the wave-length is treated theoretically. A complete solution is found satisfying Maxwell's equations and the boundary conditions everywhere (Section 4). The solution holds for a circular hole in a perfectly conducting plane screen, but it is believed that the method will be applicable to much more general problems (Section 8). The method is based on the use of fictitious magnetic charges and currents in the diffracting hole which has the advantage of automatically satisfying the boundary conditions on the conducting screen. The charges and currents are adjusted so as to give the correct tangential magnetic, and normal electric, field in the hole. The result (Section 5) is completely different from that of Kirchhoff's method, giving for the diffracted electric and magnetic field values which are smaller in the ratio (radius of the hole/wave-length) (Section 6). The diffracted field can be considered as caused by a magnetic moment in the plane of the hole, and an electric moment perpendicular to it (Section 6). The theory is applied to the problem of mutual excitation of cavities coupled by small holes (Section 9). This leads to equations very similar to those for ordinary coupled circuits. The phase and amplitude relations of two coupled cavities are not uniquely determined, but there are two modes of oscillation, of slightly different frequency, for which these relations are opposite (Section 10). The problem of stepping up the excitation from one cavity to another is treated (Section 11).

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2,473 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
J. H. Van Vleck1Institutions (1)
01 Nov 1948-Physical Review
Abstract: In regular crystals, the width of the absorption lines arising from the magnetic moment of the electron or nucleus is caused primarily by the interaction between the magnetic dipoles. It is prohibitively difficult to determine the precise shape of the absorption line theoretically, but the invariance of the diagonal sum in quantum mechanics permits the calculation of the second moment of the frequency deviation, and hence the r.m.s. line breadth. The latter agrees excellently with the observations of Pake and Purcell on the magnetic absorption of the F nucleus in Ca${\mathrm{F}}_{2}$, both in absolute magnitude, and in the dependence on the direction between the magnetic field and the principal cubic axes. The fourth moment was also computed to examine how good an approximation is the conventional assumption of a Gaussian shape. As long as no exchange is present (the nuclear case) the Gaussian model is moderately good. For the 100 direction in a cubic crystal, the theoretical ratio of root mean fourth to root mean square breadth is 1.25. Pake and Purcell's measurements yield 1.24. A Gaussian model would require 1.32. The theory is extended to include crystals with two kinds of spin moments (two types of nuclei, or simultaneous nuclear and electronic spin). Coupling between unlike moments is less effective (by a factor ⅔ in the r.m.s. width) than that between like in broadening the lines.In the paramagnetic absorption caused by electronic spin, it is imperative to include the effect of exchange coupling. This interaction does not contribute to the second moment, but greatly increases the fourth. As a result, the lines are peaked much more sharply than one would compute from the second moment with the Gaussian model for line shape. This "exchange narrowing" explains why microwave paramagnetic absorption lines are much narrower than one first conjectures from the amount of dipolar coupling.The theoretical calculations are given in Sections II-IV. The final sections V-VI give the comparison with the experiments of Pake and Purcell, and with the model of Bloembergen, Purcell, and Pound, for r-f absorption in liquids.

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2,097 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Paolo Carra1, Paolo Carra2, Paolo Carra3, B. T. Thole3  +8 moreInstitutions (3)
TL;DR: Sum rules are derived for the circular dichroic response of a core line (CMXD) that relate the intensity of the CMXD signal to the ground-state expectation value of the magnetic field operators (orbital, spin, and magnetic dipole) of the valence electrons.

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Abstract: Sum rules are derived for the circular dichroic response of a core line (CMXD). They relate the intensity of the CMXD signal to the ground-state expectation value of the magnetic field operators (orbital, spin, and magnetic dipole) of the valence electrons. The results obtained are discussed and tested for transition metals and rare earths.

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1,721 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A theory is presented for concentration quenching in solid systems, based on the migration of excitation energy from one activator center to another and eventually to an imperfection which may act as an energy sink. Calculations are made on the dependence of the fluorescence yield on concentration, and to indicate typical activator concentrations at which appreciable quenching may be expected to occur. If the transition in the activator is of the electric dipole or electric quadrupole type, appreciable quenching may arise when the activator concentration is 10‐3 to 10‐2; if it is a magnetic dipole transition, transfer will occur by exchange, rather than by overlapping of magnetic dipole fields, and the critical concentration will be of the order of a few percent. The implications of transfer phenomena upon the observed absence of luminescence in most ``pure'' inorganic crystals are discussed, and it is concluded that transfer rates are so high in strongly absorbing crystals that the energy can easily migrate to a very few sinks dispersed throughout the lattice.

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1,463 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20225
2021321
2020367
2019405
2018380
2017451

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

James R. Wait

29 papers, 323 citations

Achim Richter

26 papers, 1.1K citations

Yuri S. Kivshar

24 papers, 1.1K citations

A. M. Shutyi

21 papers, 82 citations

Pavel A. Belov

21 papers, 771 citations