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Magnetic hysteresis

About: Magnetic hysteresis is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 12665 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 253100 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The Becker-Kersten treatment of domain boundary movements is widely applicable in the interpretation of magnetization curves, but it does not account satisfactorily for the higher coercivities obtained, for example, in permanent magnet alloys. It is suggested that in many ferromagnetic materials there may occur ‘particles’ (this term including atomic segregates or ‘islands’ in alloys), distinct in magnetic character from the general matrix, and below the critical size, depending on shape, for which domain boundary formation is energetically possible. For such single-domain particles, change of magnetization can take place only by rotation of the magnetization vector, I O . As the field changes continuously, the resolved magnetization, I H , may change discontinuously at critical values, H O , of the field. The character of the magnetization curves depends on the degree of magnetic anisotropy of the particle, and on the orientation of ‘easy axes’ with respect to the field. The magnetic anisotropy may arise from the shape of the particle, from magneto-crystalline effects, and from strain. A detailed quantitative treatment is given of the effect of shape anisotropy when the particles have the form of ellipsoids of revolution (§§ 2, 3, 4), and a less detailed treatment for the general ellipsoidal form (§ 5). For the first it is convenient to use the non-dimensional parameter such that h = H /(| N a - N b |) I O , N a and N b being the demagnetization coefficients along the polar and equatorial axes. The results are presented in tables and diagrams giving the variation with h of I H / I O . For the special limiting form of the oblate spheroid there is no hysteresis. For the prolate spheroid, as the orientation angle, θ , varies from 0 to 90°, the cyclic magnetization curves change from a rectangular form with | h O | = 1, to a linear non-hysteretic form, with an interesting sequence of intermediate forms. Exact expressions are obtained for the dependence of h θ on θ , and curves for random distribution are computed. All the numerical results are applicable when the anisotropy is due to longitudinal stress, when h = HI 0 /3λδ, where λ is the saturation magnetostriction coefficient, and δ the stress. The results also apply to magneto-crystalline anisotropy in the important and representative case in which there is a unique axis of easy magnetization as for hexagonal cobalt. Estimates are made of the magnitude of the effect of the various types of anisotropy. For iron the maximum coercivities, for the most favourable orientation, due to the magneto-crystalline and strain effects are about 400 and 600 respectively. These values are exceeded by those due to the shape effect in prolate spheroids if the dimensional ratio, m , is greater than 1·1; for m = 10, the corresponding value would be about 10,000 (§7). A fairly precise estimate is made of the lower limit for the equatorial diameter of a particle in the form of a prolate spheroid below which boundary formation cannot occur. As m varies from 1 (the sphere) to 10, this varies from 1·5 to 6·1 x 10 -6 for iron, and from 6·2 to 25 x 10 -6 for nickel (§ 6). A discussion is given (§ 7) of the application of these results to ( a ) non-ferromagnetic metals and alloys containing ferromagnetic ‘impurities’, ( b ) powder magnets, ( e ) high coeravity alloys of the dispersion hardening type. In connexion with ( c ) the possible bearing on the effects of cooling in a magnetic field is indicated.

4,108 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: It is proposed that permanent magnets can be made of composite materials consisting of two suitably dispersed ferromagnetic and mutually exchange-coupled phases, one of which is hard magnetic in order to provide a high coercive field, while the other may be soft magnetic, just providing a high saturation J/sub s/, and should envelop the hard phase regions in order to prevent their corrosion. A general theoretical treatment of such systems shows that one may expect, besides a high energy product (BH)/sub max/, a reversible demagnetization curve (exchange-spring) and, in certain cases, an unusually high isotropic remanence ratio B/sub r//J/sub s/, while the required volume fraction of the hard phase may be very low, on the order of 10%. The technological realization of such materials is shown to be based on the principle that all phases involved must emerge from a common metastable matrix phase in order to be crystallographically coherent and consequently magnetically exchange coupled. >

2,171 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
28 Nov 2002-Nature
TL;DR: The fabrication of exchange-coupled nanocomposites using nanoparticle self-assembly with an energy product that exceeds the theoretical limit of 13 MG Oe for non-exchange- coupled isotropic FePt by over 50 per cent is reported.
Abstract: Exchange-spring magnets are nanocomposites that are composed of magnetically hard and soft phases that interact by magnetic exchange coupling. Such systems are promising for advanced permanent magnetic applications, as they have a large energy product--the combination of permanent magnet field and magnetization--compared to traditional, single-phase materials. Conventional techniques, including melt-spinning, mechanical milling and sputtering, have been explored to prepare exchange-spring magnets. However, the requirement that both the hard and soft phases are controlled at the nanometre scale, to ensure efficient exchange coupling, has posed significant preparation challenges. Here we report the fabrication of exchange-coupled nanocomposites using nanoparticle self-assembly. In this approach, both FePt and Fe3O4 particles are incorporated as nanometre-scale building blocks into binary assemblies. Subsequent annealing converts the assembly into FePt-Fe3Pt nanocomposites, where FePt is a magnetically hard phase and Fe3Pt a soft phase. An optimum exchange coupling, and therefore an optimum energy product, can be obtained by independently tuning the size and composition of the individual building blocks. We have produced exchange-coupled isotropic FePt-Fe3Pt nanocomposites with an energy product of 20.1 MG Oe, which exceeds the theoretical limit of 13 MG Oe for non-exchange-coupled isotropic FePt by over 50 per cent.

1,407 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We present a detailed study of static and dynamic magnetic behavior of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with average particle sizes 〈d〉 ranging from 5 to 150 nm. Bulk-like properties such as saturation magnetization, hyperfine parameters, coercive field, and Verwey transition are observed in 150 nm particles. For decreasing particle size, the Verwey temperature, TV, shifts down to ∼20 K for 〈d〉=50 nm and is no longer observable for smaller particles. The smallest particles (〈d〉=5 nm) display superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, with transition to a blocked state at TB∼45 K, which depends on the applied field. The existence of surface spin disorder can be inferred from the decrease of saturation magnetization MS at low temperatures, as the average particle size is reduced. This disordered surface did not show effects of exchange coupling to the particle core, as observed from hysteresis loops after field cooling in a 7 T magnetic field. For particles with 〈d〉=5 nm, dynamic ac susceptibility measurements show...

1,189 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The electronic reconstruction at the interface between two insulating oxides can give rise to a highly-conductive interface. In analogy to this remarkable interface-induced conductivity we show how, additionally, magnetism can be induced at the interface between the otherwise nonmagnetic insulating perovskites SrTiO3 and LaAlO3. A large negative magnetoresistance of the interface is found, together with a logarithmic temperature dependence of the sheet resistance. At low temperatures, the sheet resistance reveals magnetic hysteresis. Magnetic ordering is a key issue in solid-state science and its underlying mechanisms are still the subject of intense research. In particular, the interplay between localized magnetic moments and the spin of itinerant conduction electrons in a solid gives rise to intriguing many-body effects such as Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interactions, the Kondo effect, and carrier-induced ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors. The conducting oxide interface now provides a versatile system to induce and manipulate magnetic moments in otherwise nonmagnetic materials.

1,107 citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Manuel Vázquez

81 papers, 2.8K citations

David Jiles

78 papers, 3.1K citations

Arcady Zhukov

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A. Jabar

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