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Magnetic semiconductor

About: Magnetic semiconductor is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 8746 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 262880 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
16 Nov 2001-Science
TL;DR: This review describes a new paradigm of electronics based on the spin degree of freedom of the electron, which has the potential advantages of nonvolatility, increased data processing speed, decreased electric power consumption, and increased integration densities compared with conventional semiconductor devices.
Abstract: This review describes a new paradigm of electronics based on the spin degree of freedom of the electron. Either adding the spin degree of freedom to conventional charge-based electronic devices or using the spin alone has the potential advantages of nonvolatility, increased data processing speed, decreased electric power consumption, and increased integration densities compared with conventional semiconductor devices. To successfully incorporate spins into existing semiconductor technology, one has to resolve technical issues such as efficient injection, transport, control and manipulation, and detection of spin polarization as well as spin-polarized currents. Recent advances in new materials engineering hold the promise of realizing spintronic devices in the near future. We review the current state of the spin-based devices, efforts in new materials fabrication, issues in spin transport, and optical spin manipulation.

9,209 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Tomasz Dietl1, Hideo Ohno2, Fumihiro Matsukura2, Joel Cibert3  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
11 Feb 2000-Science
TL;DR: Zener's model of ferromagnetism, originally proposed for transition metals in 1950, can explain T(C) of Ga(1-)(x)Mn(x)As and that of its II-VI counterpart Zn(1)-Mn (x)Te and is used to predict materials with T (C) exceeding room temperature, an important step toward semiconductor electronics that use both charge and spin.
Abstract: Ferromagnetism in manganese compound semiconductors not only opens prospects for tailoring magnetic and spin-related phenomena in semiconductors with a precision specific to III-V compounds but also addresses a question about the origin of the magnetic interactions that lead to a Curie temperature (T(C)) as high as 110 K for a manganese concentration of just 5%. Zener's model of ferromagnetism, originally proposed for transition metals in 1950, can explain T(C) of Ga(1-)(x)Mn(x)As and that of its II-VI counterpart Zn(1-)(x)Mn(x)Te and is used to predict materials with T(C) exceeding room temperature, an important step toward semiconductor electronics that use both charge and spin.

6,798 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Hideo Ohno1Institutions (1)
14 Aug 1998-Science
TL;DR: The magnetic coupling in all semiconductor ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic layered structures, together with the possibility of spin filtering in RTDs, shows the potential of the present material system for exploring new physics and for developing new functionality toward future electronics.
Abstract: REVIEW Semiconductor devices generally take advantage of the charge of electrons, whereas magnetic materials are used for recording information involving electron spin. To make use of both charge and spin of electrons in semiconductors, a high concentration of magnetic elements can be introduced in nonmagnetic III-V semiconductors currently in use for devices. Low solubility of magnetic elements was overcome by low-temperature nonequilibrium molecular beam epitaxial growth, and ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As was realized. Magnetotransport measurements revealed that the magnetic transition temperature can be as high as 110 kelvin. The origin of the ferromagnetic interaction is discussed. Multilayer heterostructures including resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) have also successfully been fabricated. The magnetic coupling between two ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As films separated by a nonmagnetic layer indicated the critical role of the holes in the magnetic coupling. The magnetic coupling in all semiconductor ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic layered structures, together with the possibility of spin filtering in RTDs, shows the potential of the present material system for exploring new physics and for developing new functionality toward future electronics.

4,189 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We review the physical properties of diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) of the type AII1−xMnxBVI (e.g., Cd1−xMnxSe, Hg1−xMnxTe). Crystallographic properties are discussed first, with emphasis on the common structural features which these materials have as a result of tetrahedral bonding. We then describe the band structure of the AII1−xMnxBVI alloys in the absence of an external magnetic field, stressing the close relationship of the sp electron bands in these materials to the band structure of the nonmagnetic AIIBVI ‘‘parent’’ semiconductors. In addition, the characteristics of the narrow (nearly localized) band arising from the half‐filled Mn 3d5 shells are described, along with their profound effect on the optical properties of DMS. We then describe our present understanding of the magnetic properties of the AII1−xMnxBVI alloys. In particular, we discuss the mechanism of the Mn++‐Mn++ exchange, which underlies the magnetism of these materials; we present an analytic formulation for the magnetic susc...

2,789 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Yuji Matsumoto1, Makoto Murakami1, T. Shono1, Tetsuya Hasegawa1  +6 moreInstitutions (1)
02 Feb 2001-Science
TL;DR: The observation of transparent ferromagnetism in cobalt-doped anatase thin films with the concentration of cobalt between 0 and 8% is reported, indicating the existence of ferromagnetic long-range ordering.
Abstract: Dilute magnetic semiconductors and wide gap oxide semiconductors are appealing materials for magnetooptical devices. From a combinatorial screening approach looking at the solid solubility of transition metals in titanium dioxides and of their magnetic properties, we report on the observation of transparent ferromagnetism in cobalt-doped anatase thin films with the concentration of cobalt between 0 and 8%. Magnetic microscopy images reveal a magnetic domain structure in the films, indicating the existence of ferromagnetic long-range ordering. The materials remain ferromagnetic above room temperature with a magnetic moment of 0.32 Bohr magnetons per cobalt atom. The film is conductive and exhibits a positive magnetoresistance of 60% at 2 kelvin.

2,238 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20227
2021165
2020196
2019229
2018191
2017236