Topic

# Magnetism

About: Magnetism is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 26400 publications have been published within this topic receiving 555526 citations. The topic is also known as: magnetics.

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01 Jun 1972

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present materials at the practical rather than theoretical level, allowing for a physical, quantitative, measurement-based understanding of magnetism among readers, be they professional engineers or graduate-level students.

Abstract: Introduction to Magnetic Materials, 2nd Edition covers the basics of magnetic quantities, magnetic devices, and materials used in practice. While retaining much of the original, this revision now covers SQUID and alternating gradient magnetometers, magnetic force microscope, Kerr effect, amorphous alloys, rare-earth magnets, SI Units alongside cgs units, and other up-to-date topics. In addition, the authors have added an entirely new chapter on information materials. The text presents materials at the practical rather than theoretical level, allowing for a physical, quantitative, measurement-based understanding of magnetism among readers, be they professional engineers or graduate-level students.

6,573 citations

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TL;DR: The oxide superconductors, particularly those recently discovered that are based on La2CuO4, have a set of peculiarities that suggest a common, unique mechanism: they tend in every case to occur near a metal-insulator transition into an odd-electron insulator with peculiar magnetic properties.

Abstract: The oxide superconductors, particularly those recently discovered that are based on La2CuO4have a set of peculiarities that suggest a common, unique mechanism: they tend in every case to occur near a metal-insulator transition into an odd-electron insulator with peculiar magnetic properties. This insulating phase is proposed to be the long-sought “resonating-valence-bond” state or “quantum spin liquid” hypothesized in 1973. This insulating magnetic phase is favored by low spin, low dimensionality, and magnetic frustration. The preexisting magnetic singlet pairs of the insulating state become charged superconducting pairs when the insulator is doped sufficiently strongly. The mechanism for superconductivity is hence predominantly electronic and magnetic, although weak phonon interactions may favor the state. Many unusual properties are predicted, especially of the insulating state.

5,409 citations

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01 Jan 1963

TL;DR: In this article, the effect of changing the precession frequency of the magnetic field has been studied using NMR to study rate properties. But the effect is limited to the case of double and double resonance.

Abstract: 1. Elements of Resonance.- 2 Basic Theory.- 3. Magnetic Dipolar Broadening of Rigid Lattices.- 4. Magnetic Interactions of Nuclei with Electrons.- 5. Spin-Lattice Relaxation and Motional Narrowing of Resonance Lines.- 6. Spin Temperature in Magnetism and in Magnetic Resonance.- 7. Double Resonance.- 8. Advanced Concepts in Pulsed Magnetic Resonance.- 9. Multiple Quantum Coherence.- 10. Electric Quadrupole Effects.- 11. Electron Spin Resonance.- 12. Summary.- Problems.- Appendixes.- A. A Theorem About Exponential Operators.- B. Some Further Expressions for the Susceptibility.- D. A Theorem from Perturbation Theory.- E. The High Temperature Approximation.- F. The Effects of Changing the Precession Frequency - Using NMR to Study Rate Phenomena.- G. Diffusion in an Inhomogeneous Magnetic Field.- H. The Equivalence of Three Quantum Mechanics Problems.- I. Powder Patterns.- J. Time-Dependent Hamiltonians.- K. Correction Terms in Average Hamiltonian Theory - The Magnus Expansion.- Selected Bibliography.- References.- Author Index.

4,921 citations

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TL;DR: Xu et al. as mentioned in this paper used magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy to show that monolayer chromium triiodide (CrI3) is an Ising ferromagnet with out-of-plane spin orientation.

Abstract: Magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy is used to show that monolayer chromium triiodide is an Ising ferromagnet with out-of-plane spin orientation. The question of what happens to the properties of a material when it is thinned down to atomic-scale thickness has for a long time been a largely hypothetical one. In the past decade, new experimental methods have made it possible to isolate and measure a range of two-dimensional structures, enabling many theoretical predictions to be tested. But it has been a particular challenge to observe intrinsic magnetic effects, which could shed light on the longstanding fundamental question of whether intrinsic long-range magnetic order can robustly exist in two dimensions. In this issue of Nature, two groups address this challenge and report ferromagnetism in atomically thin crystals. Xiang Zhang and colleagues measured atomic layers of Cr2Ge2Te6 and observed ferromagnetic ordering with a transition temperature that, unusually, can be controlled using small magnetic fields. Xiaodong Xu and colleagues measured atomic layers of CrI3 and observed ferromagnetic ordering that, remarkably, was suppressed in double layers of CrI3, but restored in triple layers. The two studies demonstrate a platform with which to test fundamental properties of purely two-dimensional magnets. Since the discovery of graphene1, the family of two-dimensional materials has grown, displaying a broad range of electronic properties. Recent additions include semiconductors with spin–valley coupling2, Ising superconductors3,4,5 that can be tuned into a quantum metal6, possible Mott insulators with tunable charge-density waves7, and topological semimetals with edge transport8,9. However, no two-dimensional crystal with intrinsic magnetism has yet been discovered10,11,12,13,14; such a crystal would be useful in many technologies from sensing to data storage15. Theoretically, magnetic order is prohibited in the two-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg model at finite temperatures by the Mermin–Wagner theorem16. Magnetic anisotropy removes this restriction, however, and enables, for instance, the occurrence of two-dimensional Ising ferromagnetism. Here we use magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy to demonstrate that monolayer chromium triiodide (CrI3) is an Ising ferromagnet with out-of-plane spin orientation. Its Curie temperature of 45 kelvin is only slightly lower than that of the bulk crystal, 61 kelvin, which is consistent with a weak interlayer coupling. Moreover, our studies suggest a layer-dependent magnetic phase, highlighting thickness-dependent physical properties typical of van der Waals crystals17,18,19. Remarkably, bilayer CrI3 displays suppressed magnetization with a metamagnetic effect20, whereas in trilayer CrI3 the interlayer ferromagnetism observed in the bulk crystal is restored. This work creates opportunities for studying magnetism by harnessing the unusual features of atomically thin materials, such as electrical control for realizing magnetoelectronics12, and van der Waals engineering to produce interface phenomena15.

3,802 citations

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TL;DR: It is found that even a weak magnetoelectric interaction can lead to spectacular cross-coupling effects when it induces electric polarization in a magnetically ordered state.

Abstract: Magnetism and ferroelectricity are essential to many forms of current technology, and the quest for multiferroic materials, where these two phenomena are intimately coupled, is of great technological and fundamental importance. Ferroelectricity and magnetism tend to be mutually exclusive and interact weakly with each other when they coexist. The exciting new development is the discovery that even a weak magnetoelectric interaction can lead to spectacular cross-coupling effects when it induces electric polarization in a magnetically ordered state. Such magnetic ferroelectricity, showing an unprecedented sensitivity to ap plied magnetic fields, occurs in 'frustrated magnets' with competing interactions between spins and complex magnetic orders. We summarize key experimental findings and the current theoretical understanding of these phenomena, which have great potential for tuneable multifunctional devices.

3,683 citations