Topic

# Magnetohydrodynamics

About: Magnetohydrodynamics is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 23789 publications have been published within this topic receiving 645650 citations. The topic is also known as: MHD.

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TL;DR: In this article, a linear analysis is presented of the instability, which is local and extremely powerful; the maximum growth rate which is of the order of the angular rotation velocity, is independent of the strength of the magnetic field.

Abstract: A broad class of astronomical accretion disks is presently shown to be dynamically unstable to axisymmetric disturbances in the presence of a weak magnetic field, an insight with consequently broad applicability to gaseous, differentially-rotating systems. In the first part of this work, a linear analysis is presented of the instability, which is local and extremely powerful; the maximum growth rate, which is of the order of the angular rotation velocity, is independent of the strength of the magnetic field. Fluid motions associated with the instability directly generate both poloidal and toroidal field components. In the second part of this investigation, the scaling relation between the instability's wavenumber and the Alfven velocity is demonstrated, and the independence of the maximum growth rate from magnetic field strength is confirmed.

4,265 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a detailed derivation of the inertial range spectrum for the weak turbulence of shear Alfven waves is presented, where the authors restrict attention to the symmetric case where the oppositely directed waves carry equal energy fluxes and show that as energy cascades to high perpendicular wavenumbers, interactions become so strong that the assumption of weakness is no longer valid.

Abstract: We continue to investigate the possibility that interstellar turbulence is caused by nonlinear interactions
among shear Alfven waves. Here, as in Paper I, we restrict attention to the symmetric case where the oppositely directed waves carry equal energy fluxes. This precludes application to the solar wind in which the outward flux significantly exceeds the ingoing one. All our detailed calculations are carried out for an incompressible
magnetized fluid. In incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), nonlinear interactions only occur between oppositely direct waves. Paper I contains a detailed derivation of the inertial range spectrum for the weak turbulence of shear Alfven waves. As energy cascades to high perpendicular wavenumbers, interactions become so strong that the assumption of weakness is no longer valid. Here, we present a theory for the strong turbulence of shear Alfven waves. It has the following main characteristics. (1) The inertial-range energy spectrum exhibits a critical balance beween linear wave periods and nonlinear turnover timescales. (2) The "eddies" are elongated in the direction of the field on small spatial scales; the parallel and perpendicular components of the wave vector, k_z and k_⊥, are related by k_z ≈ k^(2/3) _⊥L^(-1/3), where L is the outer scale of the turbulence. (3) The "one-dimensional" energy spectrum is proportional to k^(-5/3) _⊥-an anisotropic Kolmogorov energy spectrum. Shear Alfvenic turbulence mixes specific entropy as a passive contaminant. This gives rise to an electron density power spectrum whose form mimics the energy spectrum of the turbulence. Radio, wave scattering by these electron density fluctuations produces anisotropic scatter-broadened images. Damping by ion-neutral collisions restricts Alfvenic turbulence to highly ionized regions of the interstellar medium. We expect negligible generation of compressive MHD waves by shear Alfven waves belonging to the critically balanced cascade. Viscous and collisionless damping are also unimportant in the interstellar medium (ISM). Our calculations support the general picture of interstellar turbulence advanced by Higdon.

2,248 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a magnetic breakout model for the initiation of a solar coronal mass ejection (CME) was proposed, where reconnection between a sheared arcade and neighboring flux systems triggers the eruption.

Abstract: We propose a new model for the initiation of a solar coronal mass ejection (CME). The model agrees with two properties of CMEs and eruptive flares that have proved to be very difficult to explain with previous models: (1) very low-lying magnetic field lines, down to the photospheric neutral line, can open toward infinity during an eruption; and (2) the eruption is driven solely by magnetic free energy stored in a closed, sheared arcade. Consequently, the magnetic energy of the closed state is well above that of the posteruption open state. The key new feature of our model is that CMEs occur in multipolar topologies in which reconnection between a sheared arcade and neighboring flux systems triggers the eruption. In this "magnetic breakout" model, reconnection removes the unsheared field above the low-lying, sheared core flux near the neutral line, thereby allowing this core flux to burst open. We present numerical simulations that demonstrate our model can account for the energy requirements for CMEs. We discuss the implication of the model for CME/flare prediction.

1,476 citations