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Malathion

About: Malathion is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3166 publications have been published within this topic receiving 50059 citations. The topic is also known as: Cythion & Ovide.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These associations with gestational age may be biologically plausible given that organophosphate pesticides depress cholinesterase and acetylcholine stimulates contraction of the uterus, and despite these observed associations, the rate of preterm delivery in this population was lower than in a U.S. reference population.
Abstract: Although pesticide use is widespread, little is known about potential adverse health effects of in utero exposure. We investigated the effects of organophosphate pesticide exposure during pregnancy on fetal growth and gestational duration in a cohort of low-income, Latina women living in an agricultural community in the Salinas Valley, California. We measured nonspecific metabolites of organophosphate pesticides (dimethyl and diethyl phosphates) and metabolites specific to malathion (malathion dicarboxylic acid), chlorpyrifos [O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl) phosphoro-thioate], and parathion (4-nitrophenol) in maternal urine collected twice during pregnancy. We also measured levels of cholinesterase in whole blood and butyryl cholinesterase in plasma in maternal and umbilical cord blood. We failed to demonstrate an adverse relationship between fetal growth and any measure of in utero organophosphate pesticide exposure. In fact, we found increases in body length and head circumference associated with some exposure measures. However, we did find decreases in gestational duration associated with two measures of in utero pesticide exposure: urinary dimethyl phosphate metabolites [βadjusted = −0.41 weeks per log10 unit increase; 95% confidence interval (CI), −0.75–−0.02; p = 0.02], which reflect exposure to dimethyl organophosphate compounds such as malathion, and umbilical cord cholinesterase (βadjusted = 0.34 weeks per unit increase; 95% CI, 0.13–0.55; p = 0.001). Shortened gestational duration was most clearly related to increasing exposure levels in the latter part of pregnancy. These associations with gestational age may be biologically plausible given that organophosphate pesticides depress cholinesterase and acetylcholine stimulates contraction of the uterus. However, despite these observed associations, the rate of preterm delivery in this population (6.4%) was lower than in a U.S. reference population.

512 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results of the present study suggest the usefulness of RBC AChE measurement as a good biomarker in the estimation of malathion-induced oxidative stress affecting blood and liver.
Abstract: Organophosphorus compounds may induce oxidative stress leading to generation of free radicals and alterations in antioxidant and scavengers of oxygen free radicals (OFRs). The effect of subchronic exposure to malathion in the production of oxidative stress was evaluated in male Wistar rats. Administration of malathion (100, 316, 1000, 1500 ppm) for 4 weeks increased catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in red blood cells (RBC) and liver. However, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were decreased in these samples. The increase in RBC and liver lipid peroxidation correlated well with the inhibition in RBC AChE and liver ChE activities. Elevation of MDA concentrations and increased activities of CAT and SOD showed significant correlations in both RBC and liver samples when different doses of malathion were used. The results of the present study suggest the usefulness of RBC AChE measurement as a good biomarker in the estimation of malathion-induced oxidative stress affecting blood and liver.

338 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that varying levels of insecticide susceptibility exist in ACP populations across the citrus-growing areas of Florida and insecticide resistance may become an emerging problem for ACP control if effective resistance management is not practiced.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is a major pest of citrus because it vectors the putative causal agent of huanglongbing disease. Insecticides are currently the basis of psyllid management programs, and the number of annual insecticide applications has increased significantly. In this paper, a series of investigations of insecticide resistance among field populations of adult and immature ACP in Florida is described. RESULTS: In 2009, the highest level of resistance for adult ACP, as compared with the laboratory susceptible (LS) population, was found with imidacloprid with an LD50 resistance ratio (RR50) of 35 in one population. This was followed by chlorpyriphos (RR50 = 17.9, 13.3, 11.8 and 6.9), thiamethoxam (RR50 = 15 and 13), malathion (RR50 = 5.4 and 5.0) and fenpropathrin (RR50 = 4.8). In 2010, mortality of adults from all five sites sampled was lower than with the LS population at three diagnostic concentrations of each insecticide tested. Among nymph populations, indications of resistance were observed with carbaryl (RR50 = 2.9), chlorpyriphos (RR50 = 3.2), imidacloprid (RR50 = 2.3 and 3.9) and spinetoram (RR50 = 4.8 and 5.9). General esterase, glutathione S-transferase and monooxygenase levels were also elevated in field-collected adult and nymph ACP as compared with the LS population. CONCLUSION: The present results suggest that varying levels of insecticide susceptibility exist in ACP populations across the citrus-growing areas of Florida. Increased levels of detoxifying enzymes in these populations may partially explain these differences. The present results indicate that insecticide resistance may become an emerging problem for ACP control if effective resistance management is not practiced. c � 2011 Society of Chemical Industry Supporting information may be found in the online version of this article.

289 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Eight strains of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and 21 of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), collected from wheat stored on farms in Oklahoma were tested for resistance to malathion, chlorpyrifos-methyI, and phosphine.
Abstract: Eight strains of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and 21 of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), collected from wheat stored on farms in Oklahoma were tested for resistance to malathion, chlorpyrifos-methyI, and phosphine. Results of discriminating dose tests of the red flour beetle indicated that all strains were resistant to malathion, one strain was resistant to phosphine, and none was resistant to chlorpyrifos-methyl. Similar discriminating dose tests for the lesser grain borer indicated that all strains were resistant to malathion, dichlorovs, and to chlorpyrifos-methyl, and 8 of 21 strains were resistant to phosphine.

277 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A survey undertaken in Kanpur, northern India, has shown the presence of high concentrations of both organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides in the surface and ground water samples, with the concentration of malathion finding to be much higher than the EC water quality standards.

243 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202375
2022199
202157
202085
201965
201871