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Management by objectives

About: Management by objectives is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2165 publications have been published within this topic receiving 66560 citations. The topic is also known as: results-based management.


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Book
01 Jan 1976
TL;DR: In this article, a confused decision maker, who wishes to make a reasonable and responsible choice among alternatives, can systematically probe his true feelings in order to make those critically important, vexing trade-offs between incommensurable objectives.
Abstract: Many of the complex problems faced by decision makers involve multiple conflicting objectives. This book describes how a confused decision maker, who wishes to make a reasonable and responsible choice among alternatives, can systematically probe his true feelings in order to make those critically important, vexing trade-offs between incommensurable objectives. The theory is illustrated by many real concrete examples taken from a host of disciplinary settings. The standard approach in decision theory or decision analysis specifies a simplified single objective like monetary return to maximise. By generalising from the single objective case to the multiple objective case, this book considerably widens the range of applicability of decision analysis.

8,895 citations

Book
01 Jan 1986
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that scientific understanding will come from the experience of management as an ongoing, adaptive, and experimental process, rather than through basic research or the development of ecological theory.
Abstract: The author challenges the traditional approach to dealing with uncertainty in the management of such renewable resources as fish and wildlife. He argues that scientific understanding will come from the experience of management as an ongoing, adaptive, and experimental process, rather than through basic research or the development of ecological theory. The opening chapters review approaches to formulating management objectives as well as models for understanding how policy choices affect the attainment of these objectives. Subsequent chapters present various statistical methods for understanding the dynamics of uncertainty in managed fish and wildlife populations and for seeking optimum harvest policies in the face of uncertainty. The book concludes with a look at prospects for adaptive management of complex systems, emphasizing such human factors involved in decision making as risk aversion and conflicting objectives as well as biophysical factors. Throughout the text dynamic models and Bayesian statistical theory are used as tools for understanding the behavior of managed systems. These tools are illustrated with simple graphs and plots of data from representative cases. This text/reference will serve researchers, graduate students, and resource managers who formulate harvest policies and study the dynamics of harvest populations, as well as analysts (modelers, statisticians, and stock assessment experts) who are concerned with the practice of policy design.

3,131 citations

BookDOI
01 Jan 2008
TL;DR: IUCN's Protected Areas Management Categories (PAMC) are recognized by international bodies such as the United Nations as well as many national governments as mentioned in this paper as the benchmark for defining, recording and classifying protected areas.
Abstract: IUCN’s Protected Areas Management Categories, which classify protected areas according to their management objectives, are today accepted as the benchmark for defining, recording and classifying protected areas.They are recognized by international bodies such as the United Nations as well as many national governments. As a result, they are increasingly being incorporated into government legislation. These guidelines provide as much clarity as possible regarding the meaning and application of the Categories. They describe the definition of the Categories and discuss application in particular biomes and management approaches.

2,117 citations

Book
01 Apr 1992
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a framework of value-focused thinking in the context of strategic thinking and action, which is used in a variety of applications, e.g., NASA, NASA Leadership in Space, Air Pollution in Los Angeles, and many others.
Abstract: PART 1: Concepts 1. Thinking about Values 1.1 Value-Focused Thinking 1.2 Creating Alternatives 1.3 Identifying Decision Opportunities 1.4 Thinking about Values 1.5 The Uses of Value-Focused Thinking 2. The Framework of Value-Focused Thinking 2.1 Framing a Decision Situation 2.2 Fundamental Objectives 2.3 The Decision Context 2.4 Guiding Strategic Thinking and Action 2.5 The Framework 2.6 Comparing Alternative-Focused and Value-Focused Thinking 2.7 Ethics and Value Neutrality Part 2: Foundations 3. Identifying and Structuring Objectives 3.1 Identifying Objectives 3.2 Identifying Fundamental Objectives 3.3 Structures of Objectives 3.4 How to Structure Objectives 3.5 Desirable Properties of Fundamental Objectives 3.6 Relating Objectives Hierarchies and Objectives Networks 3.7 Incomplete Objectives Hierarchies and Networks 3.8 Objectives Hierarchies for Groups 4. Measuring the Achievement of Objectives 4.1 The Concept of an Attribute 4.2 The Types of Attributes 4.3 Developing Constructed Attributes 4.4 Use of Proxy Attributes 4.5 Desirable Properties of Attributes 4.6 The Decision of Selecting Attributes 4.7 Connecting Decision Situations with Attributes 5. Quantifying Objectives with a Value Model 5.1 Building a Value Model 5.2 Multiple-Objective Value Models 5.3 Single-Objective Value Models 5.4 Prioritizing Objectives 5.5 The Art of Assessing Value Models 5.6 Issues to Consider in Value Assessments Part 3: Uses 6. Uncovering Hidden Objectives 6.1 Insights from Attributes 6.2 Insights from Violations of Independence Assumptions 6.3 Insights from Value Tradeoffs 6.4 Insights from Single-Attribute Objective Functions 6.5 Insights from Multiple Value Assessments 7. Creating Alternatives for a Single Decisionmaker 7.1 Counteracting Cognitive Biases 7.2 Use of Objectives 7.3 Use of Strategic Objectives 7.4 Focus on High-Value Alternatives 7.5 Use of Evaluated Alternatives 7.6 Generic Alternatives 7.7 Coordinated Alternatives 7.8 Process Alternatives 7.9 Removing Constraints 7.10 Better Utilization of Resources 7.11 Screening to Identify Good Alternatives 7.12 Alternatives for a Series of Similar Decisions 8. Creating Alternatives for Multiple Decisionmakers 8.1 Pleasing Other Stakeholders 8.2 Stakeholder Influence on Your Consequences 8.3 Clarifying Stakeholder Values for Group Decisions 8.4 Creating Alternatives for Negotiations 9. Identifying Decision Opportunities 9.1 Use of Strategic Objectives 9.2 Use of Resources Available 9.3 A Broader Decision Context 9.4 Monitoring Achievement 9.5 Establishing a Process 9.6 Negotiating for Your Side and for the Other Side 9.7 Being in the Right Place at the Right Time 9.8 When You Have No Idea about What to Do 10. Insights for the Decisionmaking Process 10.1 Guiding Information Collection 10.2 Evaluating Alternatives 10.3 Interconnecting Decisions 10.4 Improving Communication 10.5 Facilitating Involvement in Multiple-Stakeholder Decisions 10.6 Guiding Strategic Thinking Part 4: Applications 11. Selected Applications 11.1 NASA Leadership in Space 11.2 Transporting Nuclear Waste 11.3 Research on Climate Change 11.4 Air Pollution in Los Angeles 11.5 Design of Integrated Circuit Testers 11.6 Collaborating on a Book 12. Value-Focused Thinking at British Columbia Hydra 12.1 Identification and Structuring of the Strategic Objectives 12.2 First Revision of the Strategic Objectives and the Preliminary Attributes 12.3 Current Version of the Strategic Objectives and Attributes 12.4 The Quantitative Value Assessment 12.5 Insights from the Value Assessment 12.6 Decision Opportunities 13. Value-Focused Thinking for My Decisions 13.1 Strategic Objectives for Life 13.2 Guiding Involvement in Professional Activities 13.3 Decisions about Health and Safety 13.4 Professional Decisions 13.5 Personal Decisions 13.6 Value-Focused Thinking and You References Index of Applications and Examples General Index

1,654 citations

Book
01 Jan 1967
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a new theory of organization based on the management principles and practices of managers who are achieving the best result in America business and goverment, focusing mainly on the problems of business enterprises.
Abstract: Intended for person concerned with the problems of organizing human resources and activity and written especially for those actively engaged in management and supervision. The focus is largely on the problems of business enterprises. The book present a newer theory of organization (system 4) based on the management principles and practices of managers who are achieving the best result in America business and goverment

1,314 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20234
20224
202132
202038
201950
201858