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About: Mangrove is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 11428 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 262263 citation(s). The topic is also known as: bosque de mangle & mangrove ecoregion.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Aim Our scientific understanding of the extent and distribution of mangrove forests of the world is inadequate. The available global mangrove databases, compiled using disparate geospatial data sources and national statistics, need to be improved.Here,we mapped the status and distributions of global mangroves using recently available Global Land Survey (GLS) data and the Landsat archive. Methods We interpreted approximately 1000 Landsat scenes using hybrid supervised and unsupervised digital image classification techniques. Each image was normalized for variation in solar angle and earth‐sun distance by converting the digital number values to the top-of-the-atmosphere reflectance. Ground truth data and existing maps and databases were used to select training samples and also for iterative labelling. Results were validated using existing GIS data and the published literature to map ‘true mangroves’. Results The total area of mangroves in the year 2000 was 137,760 km 2 in 118 countries and territories in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Approximately 75% of world’s mangroves are found in just 15 countries, and only 6.9% are protected under the existing protected areas network (IUCN I-IV). Our study confirms earlier findings that the biogeographic distribution of mangroves is generallyconfinedtothetropicalandsubtropicalregionsandthelargestpercentage of mangroves is found between 5° N and 5° S latitude. Main conclusions We report that the remaining area of mangrove forest in the world is less than previously thought. Our estimate is 12.3% smaller than the most recent estimate by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.We present the most comprehensive, globally consistent and highest resolution (30 m) global mangrove database ever created.We developed and used better mapping techniques and data sources and mapped mangroves with better spatial and thematic details than previous studies.

1,870 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 2011-Nature Geoscience
Abstract: Mangrove forests occur along ocean coastlines throughout the tropics, and support numerous ecosystem services, including fisheries production and nutrient cycling. However, the areal extent of mangrove forests has declined by 30-50% over the past half century as a result of coastal development, aquaculture expansion and over-harvesting1, 2, 3, 4. Carbon emissions resulting from mangrove loss are uncertain, owing in part to a lack of broad-scale data on the amount of carbon stored in these ecosystems, particularly below ground5. Here, we quantified whole-ecosystem carbon storage by measuring tree and dead wood biomass, soil carbon content, and soil depth in 25 mangrove forests across a broad area of the Indo-Pacific region—spanning 30° of latitude and 73° of longitude—where mangrove area and diversity are greatest4, 6. These data indicate that mangroves are among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics, containing on average 1,023 Mg carbon per hectare.

1,635 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 2001-BioScience
Abstract: he mass media and scientific press have widely reported losses of tropical environments, such as fellingof rain forests and bleaching of coral reefs.This well-meritedattention has created a worldwide constituency that supportsconservation and restoration efforts in both of these threat-ened ecosystems. The remarkable degree of public aware-ness and support has been manifested in benefit rock concertsat Carnegie Hall and in the designation of ice cream flavorsafter rain forest products. Mangrove forests are another im-portant tropical environment,but these have received muchless publicity.Concern about the magnitude of losses of man-grove forests has been voiced mainly in the specialized liter-ature (Saenger et al. 1983, Spalding et al. 1997).Mangrove trees grow ubiquitously as a relatively narrowfringe between land and sea, between latitudes 25°N and30°S.They form forests of salt-tolerant species,with complexfood webs and ecosystem dynamics (Macnae 1968,Lugo andSnedaker 1974, Tomlinson 1986).Destruction of mangrove forests is occurring globally.Global changes such as an increased sea level may affect man-groves (Ellison 1993,Field 1995),although accretion rates inmangrove forests may be large enough to compensate for thepresent-day rise in sea level (Field 1995).More important,itis human alterations created by conversion of mangroves tomariculture,agriculture,and urbanization,as well as forestryuses and the effects of warfare, that have led to the remark-able recent losses of mangrove habitats (Saenger et al. 1983,Fortes 1988, Marshall 1994, Primavera 1995, Twilley 1998).New data on the magnitude of mangrove area and changesin it have become more readily available, especially with theadvent of satellite imagery and the Internet. Moreover, in-formation about the function of mangrove swamps, theirimportance in the sustainability of the coastal zone, and theeffects of human uses of mangrove forests is growing. Somepublished regional assessments have viewed anthropogenicthreats to mangrove forests with alarm (Ong 1982,Fortes 1988,Ellison and Farnsworth 1996),but reviews at the global scaleare dated (Linden and Jernelov 1980, Saenger et al. 1983).We collated and revised published information to reviewthe status of mangrove swamps worldwide.To assess the sta-tus of this major coastal environment, we compiled and ex-amined available data to quantify the extent of mangroveforest areas in different parts of the world,the losses of man-grove forest area recorded during recent decades, and therelative contributions by various human activities to theselosses.We first assessed current mangrove forest area in tropicalcountries of the world.It is difficult to judge the quality of thesedata in the published literature, because in many cases themethods used to obtain them were insufficiently described andthe associated uncertainty was not indicated. Much infor-mation based on satellite imagery is summarized in the

1,491 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: SUMMARY Mangroves, the only woody halophytes living at the confluence of land and sea, have been heavily used traditionally for food, timber, fuel and medicine, and presently occupy about 181 000 km 2 of tropical and subtropical coastline. Over the past 50 years, approximately one-third of the world’s mangrove forests have been lost, but most data show very variable loss rates and there is considerable margin of error in most estimates. Mangroves are a valuable ecological and economic resource, being important nursery grounds and breeding sites for birds, fish, crustaceans, shellfish, reptiles and mammals; a renewable source of wood; accumulation sites for sediment, contaminants, carbon and nutrients; and offer protection against coastal erosion. The destruction of mangroves is usually positively related to human population density. Major reasons for destruction are urban development, aquaculture, mining and overexploitation for timber, fish, crustaceans and shellfish. Over the next 25 years, unrestricted clear felling, aquaculture, and overexploitation of fisheries will be the greatest threats, with lesser problems being alteration of hydrology, pollution and global warming. Loss of biodiversity is, and will continue to be, a severe problem as even pristine mangroves are species-poor compared with other tropical ecosystems. The future is not entirely bleak. The number of rehabilitation and restoration projects is increasing worldwide with some countries showing increases in mangrove area. The intensity of coastal aquaculture appears to have levelled off in some parts of the world. Some commercial projects and economic models indicate that mangroves can be used as a sustainable resource, especially for wood. The brightest note is that the rate of population growth is projected to slow during the next 50 years, with a gradual decline thereafter to the end of the century. Mangrove forests will continue to be exploited at current rates to 2025, unless they are seen as a valuable resource to be managed on a sustainable basis. After 2025, the future of mangroves will depend on technological and ecological advances

1,476 citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Farid Dahdouh-Guebas

144 papers, 7.2K citations

Catherine E. Lovelock

92 papers, 5.9K citations

Nico Koedam

67 papers, 5.4K citations

Ilka C. Feller

58 papers, 4.9K citations

Norman C. Duke

50 papers, 3.9K citations