Topic

# Markov random field

About: Markov random field is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5669 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 179568 citation(s). The topic is also known as: MRF.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

More filters

••

[...]

TL;DR: The analogy between images and statistical mechanics systems is made and the analogous operation under the posterior distribution yields the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate of the image given the degraded observations, creating a highly parallel ``relaxation'' algorithm for MAP estimation.

Abstract: We make an analogy between images and statistical mechanics systems. Pixel gray levels and the presence and orientation of edges are viewed as states of atoms or molecules in a lattice-like physical system. The assignment of an energy function in the physical system determines its Gibbs distribution. Because of the Gibbs distribution, Markov random field (MRF) equivalence, this assignment also determines an MRF image model. The energy function is a more convenient and natural mechanism for embodying picture attributes than are the local characteristics of the MRF. For a range of degradation mechanisms, including blurring, nonlinear deformations, and multiplicative or additive noise, the posterior distribution is an MRF with a structure akin to the image model. By the analogy, the posterior distribution defines another (imaginary) physical system. Gradual temperature reduction in the physical system isolates low energy states (``annealing''), or what is the same thing, the most probable states under the Gibbs distribution. The analogous operation under the posterior distribution yields the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate of the image given the degraded observations. The result is a highly parallel ``relaxation'' algorithm for MAP estimation. We establish convergence properties of the algorithm and we experiment with some simple pictures, for which good restorations are obtained at low signal-to-noise ratios.

18,328 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed an iterative method for scene reconstruction based on a non-degenerate Markov Random Field (MRF) model, where the local characteristics of the original scene can be represented by a nondegenerate MRF and the reconstruction can be estimated according to standard criteria.

Abstract: may 7th, 1986, Professor A. F. M. Smith in the Chair] SUMMARY A continuous two-dimensional region is partitioned into a fine rectangular array of sites or "pixels", each pixel having a particular "colour" belonging to a prescribed finite set. The true colouring of the region is unknown but, associated with each pixel, there is a possibly multivariate record which conveys imperfect information about its colour according to a known statistical model. The aim is to reconstruct the true scene, with the additional knowledge that pixels close together tend to have the same or similar colours. In this paper, it is assumed that the local characteristics of the true scene can be represented by a nondegenerate Markov random field. Such information can be combined with the records by Bayes' theorem and the true scene can be estimated according to standard criteria. However, the computational burden is enormous and the reconstruction may reflect undesirable largescale properties of the random field. Thus, a simple, iterative method of reconstruction is proposed, which does not depend on these large-scale characteristics. The method is illustrated by computer simulations in which the original scene is not directly related to the assumed random field. Some complications, including parameter estimation, are discussed. Potential applications are mentioned briefly.

4,401 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: Attempts have been made to cover both fuzzy and non-fuzzy techniques including color image segmentation and neural network based approaches, which addresses the issue of quantitative evaluation of segmentation results.

Abstract: Many image segmentation techniques are available in the literature. Some of these techniques use only the gray level histogram, some use spatial details while others use fuzzy set theoretic approaches. Most of these techniques are not suitable for noisy environments. Some works have been done using the Markov Random Field (MRF) model which is robust to noise, but is computationally involved. Neural network architectures which help to get the output in real time because of their parallel processing ability, have also been used for segmentation and they work fine even when the noise level is very high. The literature on color image segmentation is not that rich as it is for gray tone images. This paper critically reviews and summarizes some of these techniques. Attempts have been made to cover both fuzzy and non-fuzzy techniques including color image segmentation and neural network based approaches. Adequate attention is paid to segmentation of range images and magnetic resonance images. It also addresses the issue of quantitative evaluation of segmentation results.

3,386 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: A non-parametric method for texture synthesis that aims at preserving as much local structure as possible and produces good results for a wide variety of synthetic and real-world textures.

Abstract: A non-parametric method for texture synthesis is proposed. The texture synthesis process grows a new image outward from an initial seed, one pixel at a time. A Markov random field model is assumed, and the conditional distribution of a pixel given all its neighbors synthesized so far is estimated by querying the sample image and finding all similar neighborhoods. The degree of randomness is controlled by a single perceptually intuitive parameter. The method aims at preserving as much local structure as possible and produces good results for a wide variety of synthetic and real-world textures.

2,748 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: A universal statistical model for texture images in the context of an overcomplete complex wavelet transform is presented, demonstrating the necessity of subgroups of the parameter set by showing examples of texture synthesis that fail when those parameters are removed from the set.

Abstract: We present a universal statistical model for texture images in the context of an overcomplete complex wavelet transform. The model is parameterized by a set of statistics computed on pairs of coefficients corresponding to basis functions at adjacent spatial locations, orientations, and scales. We develop an efficient algorithm for synthesizing random images subject to these constraints, by iteratively projecting onto the set of images satisfying each constraint, and we use this to test the perceptual validity of the model. In particular, we demonstrate the necessity of subgroups of the parameter set by showing examples of texture synthesis that fail when those parameters are removed from the set. We also demonstrate the power of our model by successfully synthesizing examples drawn from a diverse collection of artificial and natural textures.

1,831 citations