Topic

# Martingale (probability theory)

About: Martingale (probability theory) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 7870 publications have been published within this topic receiving 224298 citations.

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01 Jan 1987

TL;DR: In this article, the General Theory of Stochastic Processes, Semimartingales, and Stochastically Integrals is discussed and the convergence of Processes with Independent Increments is discussed.

Abstract: I. The General Theory of Stochastic Processes, Semimartingales and Stochastic Integrals.- II. Characteristics of Semimartingales and Processes with Independent Increments.- III. Martingale Problems and Changes of Measures.- IV. Hellinger Processes, Absolute Continuity and Singularity of Measures.- V. Contiguity, Entire Separation, Convergence in Variation.- VI. Skorokhod Topology and Convergence of Processes.- VII. Convergence of Processes with Independent Increments.- VIII. Convergence to a Process with Independent Increments.- IX. Convergence to a Semimartingale.- X. Limit Theorems, Density Processes and Contiguity.- Bibliographical Comments.- References.- Index of Symbols.- Index of Terminology.- Index of Topics.- Index of Conditions for Limit Theorems.

5,987 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine the stochastic behavior of equilibrium asset prices in a one-good, pure exchange economy with identical consumers, and derive a functional equation for price as a function of the physical state of the economy.

Abstract: THIS PAPER IS A THEORETICAL examination of the stochastic behavior of equilibrium asset prices in a one-good, pure exchange economy with identical consumers. The single good in this economy is (costlessly) produced in a number of different productive units; an asset is a claim to all or part of the output of one of these units. Productivity in each unit fluctuates stochastically through time, so that equilibrium asset prices will fluctuate as well. Our objective will be to understand the relationship between these exogenously determined productivity changes and market determined movements in asset prices. Most of our attention will be focused on the derivation and application of a functional equation in the vector of equilibrium asset prices, which is solved for price as a function of the physical state of the economy. This equation is a generalization of the Martingale property of stochastic price sequences, which serves in practice as the defining characteristic of market "efficiency," as that term is used by Fama [7] and others. The model thus serves as a simple context for examining the conditions under which a price series' failure to possess the Martingale property can be viewed as evidence of non-competitive or "irrational" behavior. The analysis is conducted under the assumption that, in Fama's terms, prices "fully reflect all available information," an hypothesis which Muth [13] had earlier termed "rationality of expectations." As Muth made clear, this hypothesis (like utility maximization) is not "behavioral": it does not describe the way agents think about their environment, how they learn, process information, and so forth. It is rather a property likely to be (approximately) possessed by the outcome of this unspecified process of learning and adapting. One would feel more comfortable, then, with rational expectations equilibria if these equilibria were accompanied by some form of "stability theory" which illuminated the forces which move an economy toward equilibrium. The present paper also offers a convenient context for discussing this issue. The conclusions of this paper with respect to the Martingale property precisely replicate those reached earlier by LeRoy (in [10] and [11]), and not surprisingly, since the economic reasoning in [10] and the present paper is the same. The

4,860 citations

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01 Jan 1997

TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the relationship between Markov Processes and Ergodic properties of Markov processes and their relation with PDEs and potential theory. But their main focus is on the convergence of random processes, measures, and sets.

Abstract: * Measure Theory-Basic Notions * Measure Theory-Key Results * Processes, Distributions, and Independence * Random Sequences, Series, and Averages * Characteristic Functions and Classical Limit Theorems * Conditioning and Disintegration * Martingales and Optional Times * Markov Processes and Discrete-Time Chains * Random Walks and Renewal Theory * Stationary Processes and Ergodic Theory * Special Notions of Symmetry and Invariance * Poisson and Pure Jump-Type Markov Processes * Gaussian Processes and Brownian Motion * Skorohod Embedding and Invariance Principles * Independent Increments and Infinite Divisibility * Convergence of Random Processes, Measures, and Sets * Stochastic Integrals and Quadratic Variation * Continuous Martingales and Brownian Motion * Feller Processes and Semigroups * Ergodic Properties of Markov Processes * Stochastic Differential Equations and Martingale Problems * Local Time, Excursions, and Additive Functionals * One-Dimensional SDEs and Diffusions * Connections with PDEs and Potential Theory * Predictability, Compensation, and Excessive Functions * Semimartingales and General Stochastic Integration * Large Deviations * Appendix 1: Advanced Measure Theory * Appendix 2: Some Special Spaces * Historical and Bibliographical Notes * Bibliography * Indices

4,562 citations

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01 Dec 1992TL;DR: In this paper, the existence and uniqueness of nonlinear equations with additive and multiplicative noise was investigated. But the authors focused on the uniqueness of solutions and not on the properties of solutions.

Abstract: Part I. Foundations: 1. Random variables 2. Probability measures 3. Stochastic processes 4. The stochastic integral Part II. Existence and Uniqueness: 5. Linear equations with additive noise 6. Linear equations with multiplicative noise 7. Existence and uniqueness for nonlinear equations 8. Martingale solutions Part III. Properties of Solutions: 9. Markov properties and Kolmogorov equations 10. Absolute continuity and Girsanov's theorem 11. Large time behaviour of solutions 12. Small noise asymptotic.

4,042 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the Cox regression model for censored survival data is extended to a model where covariate processes have a proportional effect on the intensity process of a multivariate counting process, allowing for complicated censoring patterns and time dependent covariates.

Abstract: The Cox regression model for censored survival data specifies that covariates have a proportional effect on the hazard function of the life-time distribution of an individual. In this paper we discuss how this model can be extended to a model where covariate processes have a proportional effect on the intensity process of a multivariate counting process. This permits a statistical regression analysis of the intensity of a recurrent event allowing for complicated censoring patterns and time dependent covariates. Furthermore, this formulation gives rise to proofs with very simple structure using martingale techniques for the asymptotic properties of the estimators from such a model. Finally an example of a statistical analysis is included.

3,719 citations