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Maskless lithography

About: Maskless lithography is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1964 publications have been published within this topic receiving 25138 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a maskless high-resolution patterning of structural colours is demonstrated using a new material called "M-Ink" which is tunable by magnetically changing the periodicity of the nanostructure and fixable by photochemically immobilizing those structures in a polymer network.
Abstract: Many creatures in nature, such as butterflies and peacocks, display unique brilliant colours, known as ‘structural colours’, which result from the interaction of light with periodic nanostructures on their surfaces. Mimicking such nanostructures found in nature, however, requires state-of-the-art nanofabrication techniques that are slow, expensive and not scalable. Herein, we demonstrate high-resolution patterning of multiple structural colours within seconds, based on successive tuning and fixing of colour using a single material along with a maskless lithography system. We have invented a material called ‘M-Ink’, the colour of which is tunable by magnetically changing the periodicity of the nanostructure and fixable by photochemically immobilizing those structures in a polymer network. We also demonstrate a flexible photonic crystal for the realization of structural colour printing. The simple, controllable and scalable structural colour printing scheme presented may have a significant impact on colour production for general consumer goods. Maskless high-resolution patterning of structural colours is demonstrated using a new material called ‘M-Ink’. The period of the material is patterned magnetically and a photochemical process immobilizes the structure in a polymer network.

606 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review of approaches aiming at translating this success in optical microscopy to optical lithography is presented, and basic principles and limitations, possible depletion mechanisms and recent lithography experiments by various groups are summarized.
Abstract: Direct laser writing has become a versatile and routine tool for the mask-free fabrication of polymer structures with lateral linewidths down to less than 100 nm. In contrast to its planar counterpart, electron-beam lithography, direct laser writing also allows for the making of three-dimensional structures. However, its spatial resolution has been restricted by diffraction. Clearly, linewidths and resolutions on the scale of few tens of nanometers and below are highly desirable for various applications in nanotechnology. In visible-light far-field fluorescence microscopy, the concept of stimulated emission depletion (STED) introduced in 1994 has led to spectacular record resolutions down to 5.6 nm in 2009. This review addresses approaches aiming at translating this success in optical microscopy to optical lithography. After explaining basic principles and limitations, possible depletion mechanisms and recent lithography experiments by various groups are summarized. Today, Abbe's diffraction barrier as well as the generalized two-photon Sparrow criterion have been broken in far-field optical lithography. For further future progress in resolution, the development of novel tailored photoresists in combination with attractive laser sources is of utmost importance.

545 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This result has paved the way towards portable three-dimensional maskless laser direct writing with resolution fully comparable to electron beam lithography with dependence of the feature size and the two-line resolution in a newly developed two-photon absorption resin with high mechanical strength.
Abstract: The current nanofabrication techniques including electron beam lithography provide fabrication resolution in the nanometre range. The major limitation of these techniques is their incapability of arbitrary three-dimensional nanofabrication. This has stimulated the rapid development of far-field three-dimensional optical beam lithography where a laser beam is focused for maskless direct writing. However, the diffraction nature of light is a barrier for achieving nanometre feature and resolution in optical beam lithography. Here we report on three-dimensional optical beam lithography with 9 nm feature size and 52 nm two-line resolution in a newly developed two-photon absorption resin with high mechanical strength. The revealed dependence of the feature size and the two-line resolution confirms that they can reach deep sub-diffraction scale but are limited by the mechanical strength of the new resin. Our result has paved the way towards portable three-dimensional maskless laser direct writing with resolution fully comparable to electron beam lithography.

420 citations

Patent
29 Jun 2007
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a method for manufacturing a semiconductor device, in which the number of photolithography steps can be reduced, the manufacturing process can be simplified, and manufacturing can be performed with high yield at low cost.
Abstract: An object is to provide a method for manufacturing a semiconductor device, in which the number of photolithography steps can be reduced, the manufacturing process can be simplified, and manufacturing can be performed with high yield at low cost A method for manufacturing a semiconductor device includes the following steps: forming a semiconductor film; irradiating a laser beam by passing the laser beam through a photomask including a shield for shielding the laser beam; subliming a region which has been irradiated with the laser beam through a region in which the shield is not formed in the photomask in the semiconductor film; forming an island-shaped semiconductor film in such a way that a region which is not irradiated with the laser beam is not sublimed because it is a region in which the shield is formed in the photomask; forming a first electrode which is one of a source electrode and a drain electrode and a second electrode which is the other one of the source electrode and the drain electrode; forming a gate insulating film; and forming a gate electrode over the gate insulating film

323 citations

01 Jan 2008
TL;DR: The benefits of continuing to be able to manufacture electronics at the 22-nm node and beyond appear to justify the investment, and there is no shortage of ideas on how to accomplish this.
Abstract: For all technologies, from flint arrowheads to DNA microarrays, patterning the functional material is crucial. For semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs), it is even more critical than for most technologies because enormous benefits accrue to going smaller, notably higher speed and much less energy consumed per computing function. The consensus is that ICs will continue to be manufactured until at least theB22 nm node( (the linewidth of an equal line-space pattern). Most patterning of ICs takes place on the wafer in two steps: a) lithography, the patterning of a resist film on top of the functional material; and b) transferring the resist pattern into the functional material, usually by etching. Here we concentrate on lithography. Optics has continued to be the chosen lithographic route despite its continually forecast demise. A combination of 193-nm radia- tion, immersion optics, and computer-intensive resolution enhancement technology will probably be used for the 45- and 32-nm nodes. Optical lithography usually requires that we first make a mask and then project the mask pattern onto a resist-coated wafer. Making a qualified mask, although origi- nally dismissed as a Bsupport technology,( now represents a significant fraction of the total cost of patterning an IC largely because of the measures needed to push resolution so far beyond the normal limit of optical resolution. Thus, although optics has demonstrated features well below 22 nm, it is not clear that optics will be the most economical in this range; nanometer-scale mechanical printing is a strong contender, extreme ultraviolet is still the official front runner, and electron beam lithography, which has demonstrated minimum features less than 10 nm wide, continues to be developed both for mask making and for directly writing on the wafer (also known as Bmaskless lithography(). Going from laboratory demonstra- tion to manufacturing technology is enormously expensive (9 $1 billion) and for good reason. Just in terms of data rate (mask pattern to resist pattern), today's exposure tools achieve about 10 Tb/s at an allowable error rate of about 1/h; this data rate will double with each generation. In addition, the edge placement precision required will soon be 30 parts per billion. There are so many opportunities for unacceptable perfor- mance that making the right decision goes far beyond under- standing the underlying physical principles. But the benefits of continuing to be able to manufacture electronics at the 22-nm node and beyond appear to justify the investment, and there is no shortage of ideas on how to accomplish this.

301 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202319
202228
202128
202039
201947
201857