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Master equation

About: Master equation is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 10541 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 276095 citation(s).

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01 Jan 1981
TL;DR: In this article, the authors introduce the Fokker-planck equation, the Langevin approach, and the diffusion type of the master equation, as well as the statistics of jump events.
Abstract: Preface to the first edition. Preface to the second edition. Abbreviated references. I. Stochastic variables. II. Random events. III. Stochastic processes. IV. Markov processes. V. The master equation. VI. One-step processes. VII. Chemical reactions. VIII. The Fokker-Planck equation. IX. The Langevin approach. X. The expansion of the master equation. XI. The diffusion type. XII. First-passage problems. XIII. Unstable systems. XIV. Fluctuations in continuous systems. XV. The statistics of jump events. XVI. Stochastic differential equations. XVII. Stochastic behavior of quantum systems.

7,842 citations

Journal ArticleDOI


TL;DR: Fractional kinetic equations of the diffusion, diffusion-advection, and Fokker-Planck type are presented as a useful approach for the description of transport dynamics in complex systems which are governed by anomalous diffusion and non-exponential relaxation patterns.
Abstract: Fractional kinetic equations of the diffusion, diffusion–advection, and Fokker–Planck type are presented as a useful approach for the description of transport dynamics in complex systems which are governed by anomalous diffusion and non-exponential relaxation patterns. These fractional equations are derived asymptotically from basic random walk models, and from a generalised master equation. Several physical consequences are discussed which are relevant to dynamical processes in complex systems. Methods of solution are introduced and for some special cases exact solutions are calculated. This report demonstrates that fractional equations have come of age as a complementary tool in the description of anomalous transport processes.

6,586 citations

Journal ArticleDOI


TL;DR: In this paper, an exact method is presented for numerically calculating, within the framework of the stochastic formulation of chemical kinetics, the time evolution of any spatially homogeneous mixture of molecular species which interreact through a specified set of coupled chemical reaction channels.
Abstract: An exact method is presented for numerically calculating, within the framework of the stochastic formulation of chemical kinetics, the time evolution of any spatially homogeneous mixture of molecular species which interreact through a specified set of coupled chemical reaction channels. The method is a compact, computer-oriented, Monte Carlo simulation procedure. It should be particularly useful for modeling the transient behavior of well-mixed gas-phase systems in which many molecular species participate in many highly coupled chemical reactions. For “ordinary” chemical systems in which fluctuations and correlations play no significant role, the method stands as an alternative to the traditional procedure of numerically solving the deterministic reaction rate equations. For nonlinear systems near chemical instabilities, where fluctuations and correlations may invalidate the deterministic equations, the method constitutes an efficient way of numerically examining the predictions of the stochastic master equation. Although fully equivalent to the spatially homogeneous master equation, the numerical simulation algorithm presented here is more directly based on a newly defined entity called “the reaction probability density function.” The purpose of this article is to describe the mechanics of the simulation algorithm, and to establish in a rigorous, a priori manner its physical and mathematical validity; numerical applications to specific chemical systems will be presented in subsequent publications.

5,354 citations

Posted Content


TL;DR: The discretised theoretical distributions matching the empirical data from the Federal Reserve System are deduced from aDiscretised seed which enjoys remarkable scaling laws and may be used to develop new methods for the computation of the value-at-risk and fixed-income derivative pricing.
Abstract: The Convolution and Master equations governing the time behavior of the term structure of Interest Rates are set up both for continuous variables and for their discretised forms. The notion of Seed is introduced. The discretised theoretical distributions matching the empirical data from the Federal Reserve System (FRS) are deduced from a discretised seed which enjoys remarkable scaling laws. In particular the tails of the distributions are very well reproduced. These results may be used to develop new methods for the computation of the value-at-risk and fixed-income derivative pricing.

3,099 citations



07 Feb 2012
TL;DR: In this paper, the Fokker-Planck Equation for N Variables (FPE) was extended to N = 1 variable and N = 2 variables, where N is the number of variables in the system.
Abstract: 1. Introduction.- 1.1 Brownian Motion.- 1.1.1 Deterministic Differential Equation.- 1.1.2 Stochastic Differential Equation.- 1.1.3 Equation of Motion for the Distribution Function.- 1.2 Fokker-Planck Equation.- 1.2.1 Fokker-Planck Equation for One Variable.- 1.2.2 Fokker-Planck Equation for N Variables.- 1.2.3 How Does a Fokker-Planck Equation Arise?.- 1.2.4 Purpose of the Fokker-Planck Equation.- 1.2.5 Solutions of the Fokker-Planck Equation.- 1.2.6 Kramers and Smoluchowski Equations.- 1.2.7 Generalizations of the Fokker-Planck Equation.- 1.3 Boltzmann Equation.- 1.4 Master Equation.- 2. Probability Theory.- 2.1 Random Variable and Probability Density.- 2.2 Characteristic Function and Cumulants.- 2.3 Generalization to Several Random Variables.- 2.3.1 Conditional Probability Density.- 2.3.2 Cross Correlation.- 2.3.3 Gaussian Distribution.- 2.4 Time-Dependent Random Variables.- 2.4.1 Classification of Stochastic Processes.- 2.4.2 Chapman-Kolmogorov Equation.- 2.4.3 Wiener-Khintchine Theorem.- 2.5 Several Time-Dependent Random Variables.- 3. Langevin Equations.- 3.1 Langevin Equation for Brownian Motion.- 3.1.1 Mean-Squared Displacement.- 3.1.2 Three-Dimensional Case.- 3.1.3 Calculation of the Stationary Velocity Distribution Function.- 3.2 Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Process.- 3.2.1 Calculation of Moments.- 3.2.2 Correlation Function.- 3.2.3 Solution by Fourier Transformation.- 3.3 Nonlinear Langevin Equation, One Variable.- 3.3.1 Example.- 3.3.2 Kramers-Moyal Expansion Coefficients.- 3.3.3 Ito's and Stratonovich's Definitions.- 3.4 Nonlinear Langevin Equations, Several Variables.- 3.4.1 Determination of the Langevin Equation from Drift and Diffusion Coefficients.- 3.4.2 Transformation of Variables.- 3.4.3 How to Obtain Drift and Diffusion Coefficients for Systems.- 3.5 Markov Property.- 3.6 Solutions of the Langevin Equation by Computer Simulation.- 4. Fokker-Planck Equation.- 4.1 Kramers-Moyal Forward Expansion.- 4.1.1 Formal Solution.- 4.2 Kramers-Moyal Backward Expansion.- 4.2.1 Formal Solution.- 4.2.2 Equivalence of the Solutions of the Forward and Backward Equations.- 4.3 Pawula Theorem.- 4.4 Fokker-Planck Equation for One Variable.- 4.4.1 Transition Probability Density for Small Times.- 4.4.2 Path Integral Solutions.- 4.5 Generation and Recombination Processes.- 4.6 Application of Truncated Kramers-Moyal Expansions.- 4.7 Fokker-Planck Equation for N Variables.- 4.7.1 Probability Current.- 4.7.2 Joint Probability Distribution.- 4.7.3 Transition Probability Density for Small Times.- 4.8 Examples for Fokker-Planck Equations with Several Variables.- 4.8.1 Three-Dimensional Brownian Motion without Position Variable.- 4.8.2 One-Dimensional Brownian Motion in a Potential.- 4.8.3 Three-Dimensional Brownian Motion in an External Force.- 4.8.4 Brownian Motion of Two Interacting Particles in an External Potential.- 4.9 Transformation of Variables.- 4.10 Covariant Form of the Fokker-Planck Equation.- 5. Fokker-Planck Equation for One Variable Methods of Solution.- 5.1 Normalization.- 5.2 Stationary Solution.- 5.3 Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Process.- 5.4 Eigenfunction Expansion.- 5.5 Examples.- 5.5.1 Parabolic Potential.- 5.5.2 Inverted Parabolic Potential.- 5.5.3 Infinite Square Well for the Schrudinger Potential.- 5.5.4 V-Shaped Potential for the Fokker-Planck Equation.- 5.6 Jump Conditions.- 5.7 A Bistable Model Potential.- 5.8 Eigenfunctions and Eigenvalues of Inverted Potentials.- 5.9 Approximate and Numerical Methods for Determining Eigenvalues and Eigenfunctions.- 5.9.1 Variational Method.- 5.9.2 Numerical Integration.- 5.9.3 Expansion into a Complete Set.- 5.10 Diffusion Over a Barrier.- 5.10.1 Kramers' Escape Rate.- 5.10.2 Bistable and Metastable Potential.- 6. Fokker-Planck Equation for Several Variables Methods of Solution.- 6.1 Approach of the Solutions to a Limit Solution.- 6.2 Expansion into a Biorthogonal Set.- 6.3 Transformation of the Fokker-Planck Operator, Eigenfunction Expansions.- 6.4 Detailed Balance.- 6.5 Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Process.- 6.6 Further Methods for Solving the Fokker-Planck Equation.- 6.6.1 Transformation of Variables.- 6.6.2 Variational Method.- 6.6.3 Reduction to an Hermitian Problem.- 6.6.4 Numerical Integration.- 6.6.5 Expansion into Complete Sets.- 6.6.6 Matrix Continued-Fraction Method.- 6.6.7 WKB Method.- 7. Linear Response and Correlation Functions.- 7.1 Linear Response Function.- 7.2 Correlation Functions.- 7.3 Susceptibility.- 8. Reduction of the Number of Variables.- 8.1 First-Passage Time Problems.- 8.2 Drift and Diffusion Coefficients Independent of Some Variables.- 8.2.1 Time Integrals of Markovian Variables.- 8.3 Adiabatic Elimination of Fast Variables.- 8.3.1 Linear Process with Respect to the Fast Variable.- 8.3.2 Connection to the Nakajima-Zwanzig Projector Formalism.- 9. Solutions of Tridiagonal Recurrence Relations, Application to Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations.- 9.1 Applications and Forms of Tridiagonal Recurrence Relations.- 9.1.1 Scalar Recurrence Relation.- 9.1.2 Vector Recurrence Relation.- 9.2 Solutions of Scalar Recurrence Relations.- 9.2.1 Stationary Solution.- 9.2.2 Initial Value Problem.- 9.2.3 Eigenvalue Problem.- 9.3 Solutions of Vector Recurrence Relations.- 9.3.1 Initial Value Problem.- 9.3.2 Eigenvalue Problem.- 9.4 Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations with Multiplicative Harmonic Time-Dependent Parameters.- 9.4.1 Ordinary Differential Equations.- 9.4.2 Partial Differential Equations.- 9.5 Methods for Calculating Continued Fractions.- 9.5.1 Ordinary Continued Fractions.- 9.5.2 Matrix Continued Fractions.- 10. Solutions of the Kramers Equation.- 10.1 Forms of the Kramers Equation.- 10.1.1 Normalization of Variables.- 10.1.2 Reversible and Irreversible Operators.- 10.1.3 Transformation of the Operators.- 10.1.4 Expansion into Hermite Functions.- 10.2 Solutions for a Linear Force.- 10.2.1 Transition Probability.- 10.2.2 Eigenvalues and Eigenfunctions.- 10.3 Matrix Continued-Fraction Solutions of the Kramers Equation.- 10.3.1 Initial Value Problem.- 10.3.2 Eigenvalue Problem.- 10.4 Inverse Friction Expansion.- 10.4.1 Inverse Friction Expansion for K0(t), G0,0(t) and L0(t).- 10.4.2 Determination of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors.- 10.4.3 Expansion for the Green's Function Gn,m(t).- 10.4.4 Position-Dependent Friction.- 11. Brownian Motion in Periodic Potentials.- 11.1 Applications.- 11.1.1 Pendulum.- 11.1.2 Superionic Conductor.- 11.1.3 Josephson Tunneling Junction.- 11.1.4 Rotation of Dipoles in a Constant Field.- 11.1.5 Phase-Locked Loop.- 11.1.6 Connection to the Sine-Gordon Equation.- 11.2 Normalization of the Langevin and Fokker-Planck Equations.- 11.3 High-Friction Limit.- 11.3.1 Stationary Solution.- 11.3.2 Time-Dependent Solution.- 11.4 Low-Friction Limit.- 11.4.1 Transformation to E and x Variables.- 11.4.2 'Ansatz' for the Stationary Distribution Functions.- 11.4.3 x-Independent Functions.- 11.4.4 x-Dependent Functions.- 11.4.5 Corrected x-Independent Functions and Mobility.- 11.5 Stationary Solutions for Arbitrary Friction.- 11.5.1 Periodicity of the Stationary Distribution Function.- 11.5.2 Matrix Continued-Fraction Method.- 11.5.3 Calculation of the Stationary Distribution Function.- 11.5.4 Alternative Matrix Continued Fraction for the Cosine Potential.- 11.6 Bistability between Running and Locked Solution.- 11.6.1 Solutions Without Noise.- 11.6.2 Solutions With Noise.- 11.6.3 Low-Friction Mobility With Noise.- 11.7 Instationary Solutions.- 11.7.1 Diffusion Constant.- 11.7.2 Transition Probability for Large Times.- 11.8 Susceptibilities.- 11.8.1 Zero-Friction Limit.- 11.9 Eigenvalues and Eigenfunctions.- 11.9.1 Eigenvalues and Eigenfunctions in the Low-Friction Limit.- 12. Statistical Properties of Laser Light.- 12.1 Semiclassical Laser Equations.- 12.1.1 Equations Without Noise.- 12.1.2 Langevin Equation.- 12.1.3 Laser Fokker-Planck Equation.- 12.2 Stationary Solution and Its Expectation Values.- 12.3 Expansion in Eigenmodes.- 12.4 Expansion into a Complete Set Solution by Matrix Continued Fractions.- 12.4.1 Determination of Eigenvalues.- 12.5 Transient Solution.- 12.5.1 Eigenfunction Method.- 12.5.2 Expansion into a Complete Set.- 12.5.3 Solution for Large Pump Parameters.- 12.6 Photoelectron Counting Distribution.- 12.6.1 Counting Distribution for Short Intervals.- 12.6.2 Expectation Values for Arbitrary Intervals.- Appendices.- A1 Stochastic Differential Equations with Colored Gaussian Noise.- A2 Boltzmann Equation with BGK and SW Collision Operators.- A3 Evaluation of a Matrix Continued Fraction for the Harmonic Oscillator.- A4 Damped Quantum-Mechanical Harmonic Oscillator.- A5 Alternative Derivation of the Fokker-Planck Equation.- A6 Fluctuating Control Parameter.- S. Supplement to the Second Edition.- S.1 Solutions of the Fokker-Planck Equation by Computer Simulation (Sect. 3.6).- S.2 Kramers-Moyal Expansion (Sect. 4.6).- S.3 Example for the Covariant Form of the Fokker-Planck Equation (Sect. 4.10).- S.4 Connection to Supersymmetry and Exact Solutions of the One Variable Fokker-Planck Equation (Chap. 5).- S.5 Nondifferentiability of the Potential for the Weak Noise Expansion (Sects. 6.6 and 6.7).- S.6 Further Applications of Matrix Continued-Fractions (Chap. 9).- S.7 Brownian Motion in a Double-Well Potential (Chaps. 10 and 11).- S.8 Boundary Layer Theory (Sect. 11.4).- S.9 Calculation of Correlation Times (Sect. 7.12).- S.10 Colored Noise (Appendix A1).- S.11 Fokker-Planck Equation with a Non-Positive-Definite Diffusion Matrix and Fokker-Planck Equation with Additional Third-Order-Derivative Terms.- References.

2,579 citations

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