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Material properties

About: Material properties is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 9520 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 190201 citation(s).
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01 Jan 1969-
Abstract: Thermodynamic behaviour - ensembles the thermodynamic limit for thermodynamic functions - lattice systems the thermodynamic limit for thermodynamic functions - continuous systems low density expansions and correlation functions the problem of phase transitions group invariance of physical states the states of statistical mechanics Appendix: some mathematical tools

2,033 citations

01 Jan 1952-
Abstract: The theoretical framework of thermodynamics was well established by the time NBS was founded, and certain important applications, such as improving the efficiency of steam engines, had been demonstrated. However, the broad application of thermodynamics to the design and control of industrial processes had to await the accumulation and organization of a large amount of experimental data, as well as theoretical contributions from quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. The appearance of Selected Values of Chemical Thermodynamic Properties [1] in 1952 marked a significant milestone in this process. This book represented the culmination of 20 years of work by Frederick D. Rossini and coworkers in evaluating and systematizing the data that had appeared in the world literature on thermochemistry. It tabulated accurate values of the thermodynamic properties of all inorganic and simple organic compounds that had been investigated in a format that allowed prediction of the outcome of many thousands of chemical reactions. Such calculations, which indicate whether a reaction will take place and, if so, the extent of reaction and amount of heat released or absorbed, are immensely important in research and engineering. Selected Values, which was often referred to simply as “Circular 500” after its NBS publication designation, presented recommended values of the enthalpy (heat) of formation, Gibbs energy of formation, entropy, and heat capacity of individual chemical compounds in different physical states (solid, liquid, gas, or aqueous solution). All values were reduced to standard state conditions, defined by parameters such as temperature (25 C) and pressure (one standard atmosphere). Since the laws of thermodynamics require that the change in properties such as energy and entropy cannot depend on the path followed in going from an initial to a final state—otherwise one could build a perpetual motion machine—the net change in thermodynamic properties in a chemical reaction can be calculated by addition and subtraction of the standard state values for the substances taking part in the reaction. This allows a simple prediction of whether the reaction will occur at all and, if it does, whether it will go to completion. In intermediate situations, one can obtain a quantitative measure of the extent of reaction from the equilibrium constant, which is easily calculated from the tabulated standard state values. Finally, most chemical changes involve either an absorption or release of heat, and the amount of this heat may be calculated from the same data. Thus Selected Values provided an extremely powerful tool for predicting the course of chemical reactions, a goal of chemists since the earliest days of the science. The book itself was 822 pages in length and covered about 5000 chemical species. It was divided into two parts, the first dealing with the thermodynamic properties in a particular physical state and the second with the change in properties in transitions between states (such as melting and vaporization). All data were internally consistent, in the sense that all physical and thermodynamic relations existing between different properties for the same substance, or the same property for different substances, were satisfied by the tabulated values. The table layout in Circular 500 became the norm for thermodynamic tabulations throughout the world. Fig. 1. Frederick D. Rossini.

1,455 citations

01 Jun 1982-
Abstract: : Recommended values are provided for chemical thermodynamic properties of inorganic substances and for organic substances usually containing only one or two carbon atoms. Where available, values are given for the enthalpy of formation, Gibbs energy of formation, entropy, and heat capacity at 298.15 K (25 C), the enthalpy difference between 298.15 and 0 K and the enthalpy of formation at 0 K. All values are given in SI units and are for a standard state pressure of 100 000 pascal. This volume is a new collective edition of 'Selected Values of Chemical Thermodynamic Properties,' which was issued serially as National Bureau of Standards Technical Notes 270-1 (1965) to 270-8 (1981). Values are given for properties of gaseous, liquid and crystalline substances, for solutions in water, and for mixed aqueous and organic solutions. Values are not given for alloys or other solid solutions, fused salts or for substances of undefined composition. Compounds of the transuranium elements are not included. (Author)

1,279 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The response of a finite-width composite laminate under uniform axial strain is treated through the application of classical elasticity theory. Finite-difference solution techniques are employed to obtain solutions for stresses and displacements throughout the region. Results for material properties typical of a high modulus graphite-epoxy composite material system are presented which explain the mechanism of shear transfer within a symmetric laminate. In addition, results of this work are compared to those given in a recent approximate formulation.

1,013 citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Yong Du

38 papers, 938 citations

Bhrigu Nath Singh

30 papers, 890 citations

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In-Ho Jung

20 papers, 467 citations