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# Maximum entropy probability distribution

About: Maximum entropy probability distribution is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4478 publications have been published within this topic receiving 149329 citations.

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01 Jan 1991

TL;DR: The author examines the role of entropy, inequality, and randomness in the design of codes and the construction of codes in the rapidly changing environment.

Abstract: Preface to the Second Edition. Preface to the First Edition. Acknowledgments for the Second Edition. Acknowledgments for the First Edition. 1. Introduction and Preview. 1.1 Preview of the Book. 2. Entropy, Relative Entropy, and Mutual Information. 2.1 Entropy. 2.2 Joint Entropy and Conditional Entropy. 2.3 Relative Entropy and Mutual Information. 2.4 Relationship Between Entropy and Mutual Information. 2.5 Chain Rules for Entropy, Relative Entropy, and Mutual Information. 2.6 Jensen's Inequality and Its Consequences. 2.7 Log Sum Inequality and Its Applications. 2.8 Data-Processing Inequality. 2.9 Sufficient Statistics. 2.10 Fano's Inequality. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 3. Asymptotic Equipartition Property. 3.1 Asymptotic Equipartition Property Theorem. 3.2 Consequences of the AEP: Data Compression. 3.3 High-Probability Sets and the Typical Set. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 4. Entropy Rates of a Stochastic Process. 4.1 Markov Chains. 4.2 Entropy Rate. 4.3 Example: Entropy Rate of a Random Walk on a Weighted Graph. 4.4 Second Law of Thermodynamics. 4.5 Functions of Markov Chains. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 5. Data Compression. 5.1 Examples of Codes. 5.2 Kraft Inequality. 5.3 Optimal Codes. 5.4 Bounds on the Optimal Code Length. 5.5 Kraft Inequality for Uniquely Decodable Codes. 5.6 Huffman Codes. 5.7 Some Comments on Huffman Codes. 5.8 Optimality of Huffman Codes. 5.9 Shannon-Fano-Elias Coding. 5.10 Competitive Optimality of the Shannon Code. 5.11 Generation of Discrete Distributions from Fair Coins. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 6. Gambling and Data Compression. 6.1 The Horse Race. 6.2 Gambling and Side Information. 6.3 Dependent Horse Races and Entropy Rate. 6.4 The Entropy of English. 6.5 Data Compression and Gambling. 6.6 Gambling Estimate of the Entropy of English. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 7. Channel Capacity. 7.1 Examples of Channel Capacity. 7.2 Symmetric Channels. 7.3 Properties of Channel Capacity. 7.4 Preview of the Channel Coding Theorem. 7.5 Definitions. 7.6 Jointly Typical Sequences. 7.7 Channel Coding Theorem. 7.8 Zero-Error Codes. 7.9 Fano's Inequality and the Converse to the Coding Theorem. 7.10 Equality in the Converse to the Channel Coding Theorem. 7.11 Hamming Codes. 7.12 Feedback Capacity. 7.13 Source-Channel Separation Theorem. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 8. Differential Entropy. 8.1 Definitions. 8.2 AEP for Continuous Random Variables. 8.3 Relation of Differential Entropy to Discrete Entropy. 8.4 Joint and Conditional Differential Entropy. 8.5 Relative Entropy and Mutual Information. 8.6 Properties of Differential Entropy, Relative Entropy, and Mutual Information. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 9. Gaussian Channel. 9.1 Gaussian Channel: Definitions. 9.2 Converse to the Coding Theorem for Gaussian Channels. 9.3 Bandlimited Channels. 9.4 Parallel Gaussian Channels. 9.5 Channels with Colored Gaussian Noise. 9.6 Gaussian Channels with Feedback. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 10. Rate Distortion Theory. 10.1 Quantization. 10.2 Definitions. 10.3 Calculation of the Rate Distortion Function. 10.4 Converse to the Rate Distortion Theorem. 10.5 Achievability of the Rate Distortion Function. 10.6 Strongly Typical Sequences and Rate Distortion. 10.7 Characterization of the Rate Distortion Function. 10.8 Computation of Channel Capacity and the Rate Distortion Function. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 11. Information Theory and Statistics. 11.1 Method of Types. 11.2 Law of Large Numbers. 11.3 Universal Source Coding. 11.4 Large Deviation Theory. 11.5 Examples of Sanov's Theorem. 11.6 Conditional Limit Theorem. 11.7 Hypothesis Testing. 11.8 Chernoff-Stein Lemma. 11.9 Chernoff Information. 11.10 Fisher Information and the Cram-er-Rao Inequality. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 12. Maximum Entropy. 12.1 Maximum Entropy Distributions. 12.2 Examples. 12.3 Anomalous Maximum Entropy Problem. 12.4 Spectrum Estimation. 12.5 Entropy Rates of a Gaussian Process. 12.6 Burg's Maximum Entropy Theorem. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 13. Universal Source Coding. 13.1 Universal Codes and Channel Capacity. 13.2 Universal Coding for Binary Sequences. 13.3 Arithmetic Coding. 13.4 Lempel-Ziv Coding. 13.5 Optimality of Lempel-Ziv Algorithms. Compression. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 14. Kolmogorov Complexity. 14.1 Models of Computation. 14.2 Kolmogorov Complexity: Definitions and Examples. 14.3 Kolmogorov Complexity and Entropy. 14.4 Kolmogorov Complexity of Integers. 14.5 Algorithmically Random and Incompressible Sequences. 14.6 Universal Probability. 14.7 Kolmogorov complexity. 14.9 Universal Gambling. 14.10 Occam's Razor. 14.11 Kolmogorov Complexity and Universal Probability. 14.12 Kolmogorov Sufficient Statistic. 14.13 Minimum Description Length Principle. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 15. Network Information Theory. 15.1 Gaussian Multiple-User Channels. 15.2 Jointly Typical Sequences. 15.3 Multiple-Access Channel. 15.4 Encoding of Correlated Sources. 15.5 Duality Between Slepian-Wolf Encoding and Multiple-Access Channels. 15.6 Broadcast Channel. 15.7 Relay Channel. 15.8 Source Coding with Side Information. 15.9 Rate Distortion with Side Information. 15.10 General Multiterminal Networks. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 16. Information Theory and Portfolio Theory. 16.1 The Stock Market: Some Definitions. 16.2 Kuhn-Tucker Characterization of the Log-Optimal Portfolio. 16.3 Asymptotic Optimality of the Log-Optimal Portfolio. 16.4 Side Information and the Growth Rate. 16.5 Investment in Stationary Markets. 16.6 Competitive Optimality of the Log-Optimal Portfolio. 16.7 Universal Portfolios. 16.8 Shannon-McMillan-Breiman Theorem (General AEP). Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. 17. Inequalities in Information Theory. 17.1 Basic Inequalities of Information Theory. 17.2 Differential Entropy. 17.3 Bounds on Entropy and Relative Entropy. 17.4 Inequalities for Types. 17.5 Combinatorial Bounds on Entropy. 17.6 Entropy Rates of Subsets. 17.7 Entropy and Fisher Information. 17.8 Entropy Power Inequality and Brunn-Minkowski Inequality. 17.9 Inequalities for Determinants. 17.10 Inequalities for Ratios of Determinants. Summary. Problems. Historical Notes. Bibliography. List of Symbols. Index.

45,034 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a renormalized entropy is defined as the difference in the entropy relative to the ground state of a quantum field theory excited by a moving mirror, and it is shown that the entropy can diverge for sharply localized states.

Abstract: In statistical physics, useful notions of entropy are defined with respect to some coarse-graining procedure over a microscopic model. Here we consider some special problems that arise when the microscopic model is taken to be relativistic quantum field theory. These problems are associated with the existence of an infinite number of degrees of freedom per unit volume. Because of these the microscopic entropy can, and typically does, diverge for sharply localized states. However, the difference in the entropy between two such states is better behaved, and for most purposes it is the useful quantity to consider. In particular, a renormalized entropy can be defined as the entropy relative to the ground state. We make these remarks quantitative and precise in a simple model situation: the states of a conformal quantum field theory excited by a moving mirror. From this work, we attempt to draw some lessons concerning the “information problem” in black hole physics.

1,798 citations

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TL;DR: Jaynes's principle of maximum entropy and Kullbacks principle of minimum cross-entropy (minimum directed divergence) are shown to be uniquely correct methods for inductive inference when new information is given in the form of expected values.

Abstract: Jaynes's principle of maximum entropy and Kullbacks principle of minimum cross-entropy (minimum directed divergence) are shown to be uniquely correct methods for inductive inference when new information is given in the form of expected values. Previous justifications use intuitive arguments and rely on the properties of entropy and cross-entropy as information measures. The approach here assumes that reasonable methods of inductive inference should lead to consistent results when there are different ways of taking the same information into account (for example, in different coordinate system). This requirement is formalized as four consistency axioms. These are stated in terms of an abstract information operator and make no reference to information measures. It is proved that the principle of maximum entropy is correct in the following sense: maximizing any function but entropy will lead to inconsistency unless that function and entropy have identical maxima. In other words given information in the form of constraints on expected values, there is only one (distribution satisfying the constraints that can be chosen by a procedure that satisfies the consistency axioms; this unique distribution can be obtained by maximizing entropy. This result is established both directly and as a special case (uniform priors) of an analogous result for the principle of minimum cross-entropy. Results are obtained both for continuous probability densities and for discrete distributions.

1,774 citations

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TL;DR: The best models out-perform previous probabilistic models in the discrimination of human 5' and 3' splice sites from decoys and mechanistically motivated ways of comparing models are discussed.

Abstract: We propose a framework for modeling sequence motifs based on the maximum entropy principle (MEP). We recommend approximating short sequence motif distributions with the maximum entropy distribution (MED) consistent with low-order marginal constraints estimated from available data, which may include dependencies between nonadjacent as well as adjacent positions. Many maximum entropy models (MEMs) are specified by simply changing the set of constraints. Such models can be utilized to discriminate between signals and decoys. Classification performance using different MEMs gives insight into the relative importance of dependencies between different positions. We apply our framework to large datasets of RNA splicing signals. Our best models out-perform previous probabilistic models in the discrimination of human 5' (donor) and 3' (acceptor) splice sites from decoys. Finally, we discuss mechanistically motivated ways of comparing models.

1,667 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a method for estimating the Kolmogorov entropy directly from a time signal is proposed and tested on examples, which should prove valuable for characterizing experimental chaotic signals.

Abstract: A new method for estimating the Kolmogorov entropy directly from a time signal is proposed and tested on examples. The method should prove valuable for characterizing experimental chaotic signals.

1,294 citations