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Maximum power point tracking

About: Maximum power point tracking is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 29012 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 484836 citation(s). The topic is also known as: MPPT & MPP.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The many different techniques for maximum power point tracking of photovoltaic (PV) arrays are discussed. The techniques are taken from the literature dating back to the earliest methods. It is shown that at least 19 distinct methods have been introduced in the literature, with many variations on implementation. This paper should serve as a convenient reference for future work in PV power generation.

4,654 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper proposes a method of modeling and simulation of photovoltaic arrays. The main objective is to find the parameters of the nonlinear I-V equation by adjusting the curve at three points: open circuit, maximum power, and short circuit. Given these three points, which are provided by all commercial array data sheets, the method finds the best I-V equation for the single-diode photovoltaic (PV) model including the effect of the series and parallel resistances, and warranties that the maximum power of the model matches with the maximum power of the real array. With the parameters of the adjusted I-V equation, one can build a PV circuit model with any circuit simulator by using basic math blocks. The modeling method and the proposed circuit model are useful for power electronics designers who need a simple, fast, accurate, and easy-to-use modeling method for using in simulations of PV systems. In the first pages, the reader will find a tutorial on PV devices and will understand the parameters that compose the single-diode PV model. The modeling method is then introduced and presented in details. The model is validated with experimental data of commercial PV arrays.

3,406 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This review focuses on inverter technologies for connecting photovoltaic (PV) modules to a single-phase grid. The inverters are categorized into four classifications: 1) the number of power processing stages in cascade; 2) the type of power decoupling between the PV module(s) and the single-phase grid; 3) whether they utilizes a transformer (either line or high frequency) or not; and 4) the type of grid-connected power stage. Various inverter topologies are presented, compared, and evaluated against demands, lifetime, component ratings, and cost. Finally, some of the topologies are pointed out as the best candidates for either single PV module or multiple PV module applications.

3,275 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques are used in photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the PV array output power by tracking continuously the maximum power point (MPP) which depends on panels temperature and on irradiance conditions. The issue of MPPT has been addressed in different ways in the literature but, especially for low-cost implementations, the perturb and observe (PO moreover, it is well known that the P&O algorithm can be confused during those time intervals characterized by rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. In this paper it is shown that, in order to limit the negative effects associated to the above drawbacks, the P&O MPPT parameters must be customized to the dynamic behavior of the specific converter adopted. A theoretical analysis allowing the optimal choice of such parameters is also carried out. Results of experimental measurements are in agreement with the predictions of theoretical analysis.

2,474 citations

21 Feb 2011
Abstract: About the Authors. Preface. Acknowledgements. 1 Introduction. 1.1 Wind Power Development. 1.2 Photovoltaic Power Development. 1.3 The Grid Converter The Key Element in Grid Integration of WT and PV Systems. 2 Photovoltaic Inverter Structures. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Inverter Structures Derived from H-Bridge Topology. 2.3 Inverter Structures Derived from NPC Topology. 2.4 Typical PV Inverter Structures. 2.5 Three-Phase PV Inverters. 2.6 Control Structures. 2.7 Conclusions and Future Trends. 3 Grid Requirements for PV. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 International Regulations. 3.3 Response to Abnormal Grid Conditions. 3.4 Power Quality. 3.5 Anti-islanding Requirements. 3.6 Summary. 4 Grid Synchronization in Single-Phase Power Converters. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Grid Synchronization Techniques for Single-Phase Systems. 4.3 Phase Detection Based on In-Quadrature Signals. 4.4 Some PLLs Based on In-Quadrature Signal Generation. 4.5 Some PLLs Based on Adaptive Filtering. 4.6 The SOGI Frequency-Locked Loop. 4.7 Summary. 5 Islanding Detection. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Nondetection Zone. 5.3 Overview of Islanding Detection Methods. 5.4 Passive Islanding Detection Methods. 5.5 Active Islanding Detection Methods. 5.6 Summary. 6 Grid Converter Structures forWind Turbine Systems. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 WTS Power Configurations. 6.3 Grid Power Converter Topologies. 6.4 WTS Control. 6.5 Summary. 7 Grid Requirements for WT Systems. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Grid Code Evolution. 7.3 Frequency and Voltage Deviation under Normal Operation. 7.4 Active Power Control in Normal Operation. 7.5 Reactive Power Control in Normal Operation. 7.6 Behaviour under Grid Disturbances. 7.7 Discussion of Harmonization of Grid Codes. 7.8 Future Trends. 7.9 Summary. 8 Grid Synchronization in Three-Phase Power Converters. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 The Three-Phase Voltage Vector under Grid Faults. 8.3 The Synchronous Reference Frame PLL under Unbalanced and Distorted Grid Conditions. 8.4 The Decoupled Double Synchronous Reference Frame PLL (DDSRF-PLL). 8.5 The Double Second-Order Generalized Integrator FLL (DSOGI-FLL). 8.6 Summary. 9 Grid Converter Control for WTS. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Model of the Converter. 9.3 AC Voltage and DC Voltage Control. 9.4 Voltage Oriented Control and Direct Power Control. 9.5 Stand-alone, Micro-grid, Droop Control and Grid Supporting. 9.6 Summary. 10 Control of Grid Converters under Grid Faults. 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Overview of Control Techniques for Grid-Connected Converters under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions. 10.3 Control Structures for Unbalanced Current Injection. 10.4 Power Control under Unbalanced Grid Conditions. 10.5 Flexible Power Control with Current Limitation. 10.6 Summary. 11 Grid Filter Design. 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 Filter Topologies. 11.3 Design Considerations. 11.4 Practical Examples of LCL Filters and Grid Interactions. 11.5 Resonance Problem and Damping Solutions. 11.6 Nonlinear Behaviour of the Filter. 11.7 Summary. 12 Grid Current Control. 12.1 Introduction. 12.2 Current Harmonic Requirements. 12.3 Linear Current Control with Separated Modulation. 12.4 Modulation Techniques. 12.5 Operating Limits of the Current-Controlled Converter. 12.6 Practical Example. 12.7 Summary. Appendix A Space Vector Transformations of Three-Phase Systems. A.1 Introduction. A.2 Symmetrical Components in the Frequency Domain. A.3 Symmetrical Components in the Time Domain. A.4 Components 0 on the Stationary Reference Frame. A.5 Components dq0 on the Synchronous Reference Frame. Appendix B Instantaneous Power Theories. B.1 Introduction. B.2 Origin of Power Definitions at the Time Domain for Single-Phase Systems. B.3 Origin of Active Currents in Multiphase Systems. B.4 Instantaneous Calculation of Power Currents in Multiphase Systems. B.5 The p-q Theory. B.6 Generalization of the p-q Theory to Arbitrary Multiphase Systems. B.7 The Modified p-q Theory. B.8 Generalized Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory for Three-Phase Power Systems. B.9 Summary. Appendix C Resonant Controller. C.1 Introduction. C.2 Internal Model Principle. C.3 Equivalence of the PI Controller in the dq Frame and the P+Resonant Controller in the Frame. Index.

2,195 citations

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