Topic

# Maximum power principle

About: Maximum power principle is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 14152 publications have been published within this topic receiving 207723 citations.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a method of modeling and simulation of photovoltaic arrays by adjusting the curve at three points: open circuit, maximum power, and short circuit.

Abstract: This paper proposes a method of modeling and simulation of photovoltaic arrays. The main objective is to find the parameters of the nonlinear I-V equation by adjusting the curve at three points: open circuit, maximum power, and short circuit. Given these three points, which are provided by all commercial array data sheets, the method finds the best I-V equation for the single-diode photovoltaic (PV) model including the effect of the series and parallel resistances, and warranties that the maximum power of the model matches with the maximum power of the real array. With the parameters of the adjusted I-V equation, one can build a PV circuit model with any circuit simulator by using basic math blocks. The modeling method and the proposed circuit model are useful for power electronics designers who need a simple, fast, accurate, and easy-to-use modeling method for using in simulations of PV systems. In the first pages, the reader will find a tutorial on PV devices and will understand the parameters that compose the single-diode PV model. The modeling method is then introduced and presented in details. The model is validated with experimental data of commercial PV arrays.

3,811 citations

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TL;DR: Efficiency and, in particular, efficiency at maximum power can be discussed systematically beyond the linear response regime for two classes of molecular machines, isothermal ones such as molecular motors, and heat engines such as thermoelectric devices, using a common framework based on a cycle decomposition of entropy production.

Abstract: Stochastic thermodynamics as reviewed here systematically provides a framework for extending the notions of classical thermodynamics such as work, heat and entropy production to the level of individual trajectories of well-defined non-equilibrium ensembles. It applies whenever a non-equilibrium process is still coupled to one (or several) heat bath(s) of constant temperature. Paradigmatic systems are single colloidal particles in time-dependent laser traps, polymers in external flow, enzymes and molecular motors in single molecule assays, small biochemical networks and thermoelectric devices involving single electron transport. For such systems, a first-law like energy balance can be identified along fluctuating trajectories. For a basic Markovian dynamics implemented either on the continuum level with Langevin equations or on a discrete set of states as a master equation, thermodynamic consistency imposes a local-detailed balance constraint on noise and rates, respectively. Various integral and detailed fluctuation theorems, which are derived here in a unifying approach from one master theorem, constrain the probability distributions for work, heat and entropy production depending on the nature of the system and the choice of non-equilibrium conditions. For non-equilibrium steady states, particularly strong results hold like a generalized fluctuation–dissipation theorem involving entropy production. Ramifications and applications of these concepts include optimal driving between specified states in finite time, the role of measurement-based feedback processes and the relation between dissipation and irreversibility. Efficiency and, in particular, efficiency at maximum power can be discussed systematically beyond the linear response regime for two classes of molecular machines, isothermal ones such as molecular motors, and heat engines such as thermoelectric devices, using a common framework based on a cycle decomposition of entropy production. (Some figures may appear in colour only in the online journal) This article was invited by Erwin Frey.

2,834 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the perturb and observe (PO) algorithm is used in photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the PV array output power by tracking continuously the maximum power point (MPP) which depends on panels temperature and on irradiance conditions.

Abstract: Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques are used in photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the PV array output power by tracking continuously the maximum power point (MPP) which depends on panels temperature and on irradiance conditions. The issue of MPPT has been addressed in different ways in the literature but, especially for low-cost implementations, the perturb and observe (PO moreover, it is well known that the P&O algorithm can be confused during those time intervals characterized by rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. In this paper it is shown that, in order to limit the negative effects associated to the above drawbacks, the P&O MPPT parameters must be customized to the dynamic behavior of the specific converter adopted. A theoretical analysis allowing the optimal choice of such parameters is also carried out. Results of experimental measurements are in agreement with the predictions of theoretical analysis.

2,696 citations

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Saga University

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, the authors developed an incremental conductance (IncCond) algorithm to track the maximum power operating point (MPOP) of photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems.

Abstract: As the maximum power operating point (MPOP) of photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems changes with changing atmospheric conditions (e.g. solar radiation and temperature), an important consideration in the design of efficient PV systems is to track the MPOP correctly. Many maximum power tracking (MPT) techniques have been considered in the past but techniques using microprocessors with appropriate MPT algorithms are favoured because of their flexibility and compatibility with different PV arrays. Although the efficiency of these MPT algorithms is usually high, it drops noticeably in cases of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. The authors have developed a new MPT algorithm based on the fact that the MPOP of a PV generator can be tracked accurately by comparing the incremental and instantaneous conductances of the PV array. The work was carried out by both simulation and experiment, with results showing that the developed incremental conductance (IncCond) algorithm has successfully tracked the MPOP, even in cases of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions, and has higher efficiency than ordinary algorithms in terms of total PV energy transferred to the load.

1,732 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the maximum power conversion efficiency for conversion of solar radiation to electrical power or to a flux of chemical free energy for the case of hydrogen production from water photoelectrolysis was calculated.

Abstract: We calculate the maximum power conversion efficiency for conversion of solar radiation to electrical power or to a flux of chemical free energy for the case of hydrogen production from water photoelectrolysis. We consider several types of ideal absorbers where absorption of one photon can produce more than one electron-hole pair that are based on semiconductor quantum dots with efficient multiple exciton generation (MEG) or molecules that undergo efficient singlet fission (SF). Using a detailed balance model with 1 sun AM1.5G illumination, we find that for single gap photovoltaic (PV) devices the maximum efficiency increases from 33.7% for cells with no carrier multiplication to 44.4% for cells with carrier multiplication. We also find that the maximum efficiency of an ideal two gap tandem PV device increases from 45.7% to 47.7% when carrier multiplication absorbers are used in the top and bottom cells. For an ideal water electrolysis two gap tandem device, the maximum conversion efficiency is 46.0% using...

1,363 citations