May 1921 geomagnetic storm
About: May 1921 geomagnetic storm is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 391 publications have been published within this topic receiving 12102 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, an attempt is made to define a geomagnetic storm as an interval of time when a sufficiently intense and long-lasting interplanetary convection electric field leads, through a substantial energization in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system, to an intensified ring current sufficiently strong to exceed some key threshold of the quantifying storm time Dst index.
Abstract: After a brief review of magnetospheric and interplanetary phenomena for intervals with enhanced solar wind-magnetosphere interaction, an attempt is made to define a geomagnetic storm as an interval of time when a sufficiently intense and long-lasting interplanetary convection electric field leads, through a substantial energization in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system, to an intensified ring current sufficiently strong to exceed some key threshold of the quantifying storm time Dst index. The associated storm/substorm relationship problem is also reviewed. Although the physics of this relationship does not seem to be fully understood at this time, basic and fairly well established mechanisms of this relationship are presented and discussed. Finally, toward the advancement of geomagnetic storm research, some recommendations are given concerning future improvements in monitoring existing geomagnetic indices as well as the solar wind near Earth.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed the current understanding and recent advances in the study of ionospheric storms with emphasis on the F2-region, and proposed a global first principle physical model to simulate the storm response of the coupled neutral and ionized upper atmospheric constituents.
Abstract: In this paper, our current understanding and recent advances in the study of ionospheric storms is reviewed, with emphasis on the F2-region. Ionospheric storms represent an extreme form of space weather with important effects on ground- and space-based technological systems. These phenomena are driven by highly variable solar and magnetospheric energy inputs to the Earth's upper atmosphere, which continue to provide a major difficulty for attempts now being made to simulate the detailed storm response of the coupled neutral and ionized upper atmospheric constituents using increasingly sophisticated global first principle physical models. Several major programs for coordinated theoretical and experimental study of these storms are now underway. These are beginning to bear fruit in the form of improved physical understanding and prediction of ionospheric storm effects at high, middle, and low latitude.
TL;DR: In this paper, four numerical simulations have been performed, at equinox, using a coupled thermosphere-ionosphere model, to illustrate the response of the upper atmosphere to geomagnetic storms.
Abstract: Four numerical simulations have been performed, at equinox, using a coupled thermosphere-ionosphere model, to illustrate the response of the upper atmosphere to geomagnetic storms. The storms are characterized by an increase in magnetospheric energy input at high latitude for a 12-hour period; each storm commences at a different universal time (UT). The initial response at high latitude is that Joule heating raises the temperature of the upper thermosphere and ion drag drives high-velocity neutral winds. The heat source drives a global wind surge, from both polar regions, which propagates to low latitudes and into the opposite hemisphere. The surge has the character of a large-scale gravity wave with a phase speed of about 600 m/s. Behind the surge a global circulation of magnitude 100 m/s is established at middle latitudes, indicating that the wave and the onset of global circulation are manifestations of the same phenomena. A dominant feature of the response is the penetration of the surge into the opposite hemisphere where it drives poleward winds for a few hours. The global wind surge has a preference for the night sector and for the longitude of the magnetic pole and therefore depends on the UT start time of the storm. A second phase of the meridional circulation develops after the wave interaction but is also restricted, in this case by the buildup of zonal winds via the Coriolis interaction. Conservation of angular momentum may limit the buildup of zonal wind in extreme cases. The divergent wind field drives upwelling and composition change on both height and pressure surfaces. The composition bulge responds to both the background and the storm-induced horizontal winds; it does not simply rotate with Earth. During the storm the disturbance wind modulates the location of the bulge; during the recovery the background winds induce a diurnal variation in its position. Equatorward winds in sunlight produce positive ionospheric changes during the main driving phase of the storm. Negative ionospheric phases are caused by increases of molecular nitrogen in regions of sunlight, the strength of which depends on longitude and the local time of the sector during the storm input. Regions of positive phase in the ionosphere persist in the recovery period due to decreases in mean molecular mass in regions of previous downwelling. Ion density changes, expressed as a ratio of disturbed to quiet values, exhibit a diurnal variation that is driven by the location of the composition bulge; this variation explains the ac component of the local time variation of the observed negative storm phase.
George Mason University1, University of Maryland, College Park2, Goddard Space Flight Center3, Boston College4, University of California, Berkeley5, Massachusetts Institute of Technology6, University of Alabama in Huntsville7, The Catholic University of America8, Royal Observatory of Belgium9, Moscow State University10
TL;DR: In this article, the authors presented the results of an investigation of the sequence of events from the Sun to the Earth that ultimately led to the 88 major geomagnetic storms (defined by minimum Dst �� 100 nT) that occurred during 1996-2005.
Abstract:  We present the results of an investigation of the sequence of events from the Sun to the Earth that ultimately led to the 88 major geomagnetic storms (defined by minimum Dst �� 100 nT) that occurred during 1996–2005. The results are achieved through cooperative efforts that originated at the Living with a Star (LWS) Coordinated DataAnalysis Workshop (CDAW) held at George Mason University in March 2005. On the basis of careful examination of the complete array of solar and in situ solar wind observations, we have identified and characterized, for each major geomagnetic storm, the overall solar-interplanetary (solar-IP) source type, the time, velocity, and angular width of the source coronal mass ejection (CME), the type and heliographic location of the solar source region, the structure of the transient solar wind flow with the storm-driving component specified, the arrival time of shock/disturbance, and the start and ending times of the corresponding IP CME (ICME). The storm-driving component, which possesses a prolonged and enhanced southward magnetic field (Bs), may be an ICME, the sheath of shocked plasma (SH) upstream of an ICME, a corotating interaction region (CIR), or a combination of these structures. We classify the Solar-IP sources into three broad types: (1) S-type, in which the storm is associated with a single ICME and a single CME at the Sun; (2) M-type, in which the storm is associated with a complex solar wind flow produced by multiple interacting ICMEs arising from multiple halo CMEs launched from the Sun in a short period; (3) C-type, in which the storm is associated with a CIR formed at the leading edge of a high-speed stream originating from a solar coronal hole (CH). For the 88 major storms, the S-type, M-type, and C-type events number 53 (60%), 24 (27%), and 11 (13%), respectively. For the 85 events for which the surface source regions could be investigated, 54 (63%) of the storms originated in solar active regions, 11 (13%) in quiet Sun regions associated with quiescent filaments or filament channels, and 11 (13%) were associated with coronal holes. Remarkably, nine (11%) CME-driven events showed no sign of eruptive features on the surface or in the low corona (e.g., no flare, no coronal dimming, and no loop arcade, etc.), even though all the available solar observations in a suitable time period were carefully examined. Thus while it is generally true that a major geomagnetic storm is more likely to be driven by a frontside fast halo CME associated with a major flare, our study indicates a broad distribution of source properties. The implications of the results for space weather forecasting are briefly discussed.
TL;DR: In this paper, a three-dimensional model of the coupled thermosphere and ionosphere is used to explain the dependence of the midlatitude ionosphere response to geomagnetic storms.
Abstract: Ionosonde observations have provided the data to build a picture of the response of the midlatitude ionosphere to a geomagnetic storm. The particular characteristic of interest is the preference for “negative storms” (decrease in the peak electron density, NmF2) in summer and “positive storms” (increase in NmF2) in winter. A three-dimensional, time-dependent model of the coupled thermosphere and ionosphere is used to explain this dependence. During the driven phase of a geomagnetic storm the two main magnetospheric energy sources to the upper atmosphere (auroral precipitation and convective electric field) increase dramatically. Auroral precipitation increases the ion density and conductivity of the upper atmosphere; the electric field drives the ionosphere and, through collisions, forces the thermosphere into motion and then deposits heat via Joule dissipation. The global wind response is divergent at high latitudes in both hemispheres. Vertical winds are driven by the divergent wind field and carry molecule-rich air to higher levels. Once created, the “composition bulge” of increased mean molecular mass is transported by both the storm-induced and background wind fields. The storm winds imposed on the background circulation do not have a strong seasonal dependence, and this is not necessary to explain the observations. Numerical computations suggest that the prevailing summer-to-winter circulation at solstice transports the molecule-rich gas to mid and low latitudes in the summer hemisphere over the day or two following the storm. In the winter hemisphere, poleward winds restrict the equatorward movement of composition. The altered neutral-chemical environment in summer subsequently depletes the F region midlatitude ionosphere to produce a “negative storm”. In winter midlatitudes a decrease in molecular species, associated with downwelling, persists and produces the characteristic “positive storm”.
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