Topic

# MDS matrix

About: MDS matrix is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 102 publications have been published within this topic receiving 2000 citations.

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TL;DR: In this paper, instead of looking for an optimized circuit of a given matrix, they run a search through a space of circuits, to find optimal circuits yielding MDS matrices.

Abstract: MDS matrices are an important element for the design of block ciphers such as the AES. In recent years, there has been a lot of work on the construction of MDS matrices with a low implementation cost, in the context of lightweight cryptography. Most of the previous efforts focused on local optimization, constructing MDS matrices with coefficients that can be efficiently computed. In particular, this led to a matrix with a direct xor count of only 106, while a direct implementation of the MixColumn matrix of the AES requires 152 bitwise xors. More recently, techniques based on global optimization have been introduced, where the implementation can reuse some intermediate variables. In particular, Kranz et al. used optimization tools to find a good implementation from the description of an MDS matrix. They have lowered the cost of implementing the MixColumn matrix to 97 bitwise xors, and proposed a new matrix with only 72 bitwise xors, the lowest cost known so far. In this work we propose a different approach to global optimization. Instead of looking for an optimized circuit of a given matrix, we run a search through a space of circuits, to find optimal circuits yielding MDS matrices. This results in MDS matrices with an even lower cost, with only 67 bitwise xors.

12 citations

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07 Jun 2018

TL;DR: An easy-to-verify sufficient condition on a cell permutation is state, to be used as an alternative in Midori, that attains a high number of active S-boxes and thus provides good resistance against differential and linear attacks.

Abstract: We study possible alternatives for ShiftRows to be used as cell permutations in AES-like ciphers. As observed during the design process of the block cipher Midori, when using a matrix with a non-optimal branch number for the MixColumns operation, the choice of the cell permutation, i.e., an alternative for ShiftRows, can actually improve the security of the primitive. In contrast, when using an MDS matrix it is known that one cannot increase the minimum number of active S-boxes by deviating from the ShiftRows-type permutation. However, finding the optimal choice for the cell permutation for a given, non-optimal, MixColumns operation is a highly non-trivial problem. In this work, we propose techniques to speed up the search for the optimal cell permutations significantly. As case studies, we apply those techniques to Midori and Skinny and provide possible alternatives for their cell permutations. We finally state an easy-to-verify sufficient condition on a cell permutation, to be used as an alternative in Midori, that attains a high number of active S-boxes and thus provides good resistance against differential and linear attacks.

12 citations

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10 Jun 2014TL;DR: Zhang et al. as mentioned in this paper showed that the security of Zorro against linear and differential cryptanalysis evaluated by designers is insufficient, and that the secret key selected randomly from the whole key space can be recovered much faster than the brute-force attack.

Abstract: Zorro is an AES-like lightweight block cipher proposed in CHES 2013, which only uses 4 S-boxes per round. The designers showed the resistance of the cipher against various attacks and concluded the cipher has a large security margin. Recently, Guo et. al [1] have given a key recovery attack on full-round Zorro by using the internal differential characteristics. However, the attack only works for 264 out of 2128 keys. In this paper, the secret key selected randomly from the whole key space can be recovered much faster than the brute-force attack. We first observe that the fourth power of the MDS matrix used in Zorro(or AES) equals to the identity matrix. Moveover, several iterated differential characteristics and iterated linear trails are found due to the interesting property. We select three characteristics with the largest probability to give the key recovery attack on Zorro and a linear trail with the largest correlation to show a linear distinguishing attack with 2105.3 known plaintexts. The results show that the security of Zorro against linear and differential cryptanalysis evaluated by designers is insufficient and the security margin of Zorro is not enough.

12 citations

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TL;DR: This work proves the conjecture that the MDS condition is sufficient over small fields as well as over very large fields by a probabilistic argument.

Abstract: An MDS matrix is a matrix whose minors all have full rank. A question arising in coding theory is what zero patterns can MDS matrices have. There is a natural combinatorial characterization (called the MDS condition) which is necessary over any field, as well as sufficient over very large fields by a probabilistic argument.
Dau et al. (ISIT 2014) conjectured that the MDS condition is sufficient over small fields as well, where the construction of the matrix is algebraic instead of probabilistic. This is known as the GM-MDS conjecture. Concretely, if a $k \times n$ zero pattern satisfies the MDS condition, then they conjecture that there exists an MDS matrix with this zero pattern over any field of size $|\mathbb{F}| \ge n+k-1$. In recent years, this conjecture was proven in several special cases. In this work, we resolve the conjecture.

10 citations

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11 Dec 2017

TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a Dynamic Mix Column Transformation (DCT) based on the default MDS Matrix of AES and mbit additional key, where m is a variable length that does not exceed the product of 31.97 and one less the number of encryption rounds.

Abstract: MDS Matrix has an important role in the design of Rijndael Cipher and is the most expensive component of the cipher. It is also used as a perfect diffusion primitive in some other block ciphers. In this paper, we propose a replacement of Mix Column Transformation in AES by equivalent Dynamic Mix Column Transformation. A Dynamic Mix Column Transformation comprises dynamic MDS Matrices which are based on default MDS Matrix of AES and mbit additional key. Here m is a variable length that does not exceed the product of 31.97 and one less the number of encryption rounds. This mechanism increases a brute force attack complexity by m-bit to the original key and enforces the attackers to design new frameworks for different modern cryptanalytic techniques applicable to the cipher. We also present efficient implementation of this technique in Texas Instrument’s DSP C64x+ with no extra cost to default AES and in Xilinx Spartan3 FPGA with no change in AES throughput. We also briefly analyze the security achieved over it.

9 citations