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Melody

About: Melody is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3041 publications have been published within this topic receiving 70626 citations. The topic is also known as: tune.


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Book
07 Dec 2007
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a taxonomy of musical meaning in relation to music and the expression and application of emotion as a key link in the context of music analysis and interpretation.
Abstract: 1. Introduction 2. Sound Elements: Pitch and Timbre 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Musical Sound Systems 2.3 Linguistic Sound Systems 2.4 Sound Category Learning as a Key Link 2.5 Conclusion Appendixes 3. Rhythm 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Rhythm in Music 3.3 Rhythm in Speech 3.4 Interlude: Rhythm in Poetry and Song 3.5 Non-Periodic Aspects of Rhythm as a Key Link 3.6 Conclusion Appendixes 4. Melody 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Melody in Music: Comparisons to Speech 4.3 Speech Melody: Links to Music 4.4 Interlude: Musical and Linguistic Melody in Song 4.5 Melodic Statistics and Melodic Contour as Key Links 4.6 Conclusion Appendix 5. Syntax 5.1 Introduction 5.2 The Structural Richness of Musical Syntax 5.3 Formal Differences and Similarities between Musical and Linguistic Syntax 5.4 Neural Resources for Syntactic Integration as a Key Link 5.5 Conclusion 6. Meaning 6.1 Introduction 6.2 A Brief Taxonomy of Musical Meaning 6.3 Linguistic Meaning in Relation to Music 6.4 Interlude: Linguistic and Musical Meaning in Song 6.5 The Expression and Appraisal of Emotion as a Key Link 6.6 Conclusion 7. Evolution 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Language and Natural Selection 7.3 Music and Natural Selection 7.4 Music and Evolution: Neither Adaptation nor Frill 7.5 Beat-Based Rhythm Processing as a Key Research Area 7.6 Conclusion Appendix Afterword References List of Sound Examples Lis of Credits Author Index Subject Index

1,211 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that specialized neural systems in the right superior temporal cortex participate in perceptual analysis of melodies; pitch comparisons are effected via a neural network that includes right prefrontal cortex, but active retention of pitch involves the interaction of right temporal and frontal cortices.
Abstract: The neural correlates of music perception were studied by measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes with positron emission tomography (PET). Twelve volunteers were scanned using the bolus water method under four separate conditions: (1) listening to a sequence of noise bursts, (2) listening to unfamiliar tonal melodies, (3) comparing the pitch of the first two notes of the same set of melodies, and (4) comparing the pitch of the first and last notes of the melodies. The latter two conditions were designed to investigate short-term pitch retention under low or high memory load, respectively. Subtraction of the obtained PET images, superimposed on matched MRI scans, provides anatomical localization of CBF changes associated with specific cognitive functions. Listening to melodies, relative to acoustically matched noise sequences, resulted in CBF increases in the right superior temporal and right occipital cortices. Pitch judgments of the first two notes of each melody, relative to passive listening to the same stimuli, resulted in right frontal-lobe activation. Analysis of the high memory load condition relative to passive listening revealed the participation of a number of cortical and subcortical regions, notably in the right frontal and right temporal lobes, as well as in parietal and insular cortex. Both pitch judgment conditions also revealed CBF decreases within the left primary auditory cortex. We conclude that specialized neural systems in the right superior temporal cortex participate in perceptual analysis of melodies; pitch comparisons are effected via a neural network that includes right prefrontal cortex, but active retention of pitch involves the interaction of right temporal and frontal cortices.

862 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
14 Nov 2002-Neuron
TL;DR: The results support the view that there is hierarchy of pitch processing in which the center of activity moves anterolaterally away from primary auditory cortex as the processing of melodic sounds proceeds.

730 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Investigation of congenital amusia, a lifelong disorder of musical processing, impacts sensitivity to musical emotion elicited by timbre and tonal system information finds amusics rated Western melodies as more tense compared to controls, as they relied less on tonality cues than controls in rating tension for Western melodies.
Abstract: Emotional communication in music depends on multiple attributes including psychoacoustic features and tonal system information, the latter of which is unique to music. The present study investigated whether congenital amusia, a lifelong disorder of musical processing, impacts sensitivity to musical emotion elicited by timbre and tonal system information. Twenty-six amusics and 26 matched controls made tension judgments on Western (familiar) and Indian (unfamiliar) melodies played on piano and sitar. Like controls, amusics used timbre cues to judge musical tension in Western and Indian melodies. While controls assigned significantly lower tension ratings to Western melodies compared to Indian melodies, thus showing a tonal familiarity effect on tension ratings, amusics provided comparable tension ratings for Western and Indian melodies on both timbres. Furthermore, amusics rated Western melodies as more tense compared to controls, as they relied less on tonality cues than controls in rating tension for Western melodies. The implications of these findings in terms of emotional responses to music are discussed.

627 citations

Book
18 Dec 1990
TL;DR: Eugene Narmour formulates a comprehensive theory of melodic syntax to explain cognitive relations between melodic tones at their most basic level and draws extensively from a variety of disciplines, in particular from cognitive psychology and music theory to develop an elegant and persuasive framework for the understanding of melody.
Abstract: Eugene Narmour formulates a comprehensive theory of melodic syntax to explain cognitive relations between melodic tones at their most basic level. Expanding on the theories of Leonard B. Meyer, the author develops one parsimonious, scaled set of rules modeling implication and realization in all the primary parameters of music. Through an elaborate and original analytic symbology, he shows that a kind of "genetic code" governs the perception and cognition of melody. One is an automatic, "brute" system operating on stylistic primitives from the bottom up. The other constitutes a learned system of schemata impinging on style structures from the top down. The theoretical constants Narmour uses are context-free and, therefore, applicable to all styles of melody. He places considerable emphasis on the listener's cognitive performance (that is, fundamental melodic perception as opposed to acquired musical competence). He concentrates almost exclusively on low-level, note-to-note relations. The result is a highly generalized theory useful in researching all manner of psychological and music-theoretic problems concerned with the analysis and cognition of melody. "In this innovative, landmark book, a distinguished music theorist draws extensively from a variety of disciplines, in particular from cognitive psychology and music theory, to develop an elegant and persuasive framework for the understanding of melody. This book should be read by all scholars with a serious interest in music."--Diana Deutsch, Editor, Music Perception

596 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023212
2022551
202182
202091
2019102
2018106