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Melting point

About: Melting point is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 23580 publications have been published within this topic receiving 419440 citations. The topic is also known as: melting point.


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TL;DR: New, hydrophobic ionic liquids with low melting points (<−30 °C to ambient temperature) have been synthesized and investigated, based on 1,3-dialkyl imidazolium cations and hydrophilic anions and thus water-soluble.
Abstract: New, hydrophobic ionic liquids with low melting points (<−30 °C to ambient temperature) have been synthesized and investigated, based on 1,3-dialkyl imidazolium cations and hydrophobic anions. Other imidazolium molten salts with hydrophilic anions and thus water-soluble are also described. The molten salts were characterized by NMR and elemental analysis. Their density, melting point, viscosity, conductivity, refractive index, electrochemical window, thermal stability, and miscibility with water and organic solvents were determined. The influence of the alkyl substituents in 1, 2, 3, and 4(5)-positions on these properties was scrutinized. Viscosities as low as 35 cP (for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)amide (bis(triflyl)amide) and trifluoroacetate) and conductivities as high as 9.6 mS/cm were obtained. Photophysical probe studies were carried out to establish more precisely the solvent properties of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)amide). The hydrophobi...

4,089 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the melting points of small gold particles have been measured using a scanning electron-diffraction technique and the experimental results are quantitatively in good agreement with two phenomenological models.
Abstract: Recently, small particles have been shown to exhibit a melting temperature which depends on the particle size. The various possible experimental methods have been compared and measurements of the melting points of small gold particles have been made using a scanning electron-diffraction technique. This method was applied to particles having diameters down to 20 \AA{}. Consideration of the size distribution over an entire sample makes it necessary to carry out a careful analysis of the experimental results in order to deduce the melting temperature of particles having a well-defined diameter. The experimental results are quantitatively in good agreement with two phenomenological models. The first model describes the equilibrium condition for a system formed by a solid particle, a liquid particle having the same mass, and their saturating vapor phase. The second model assumes the preexistence of a liquid layer surrounding the solid particle and describes the equilibrium of such a system in the presence of the vapor phase. In order to permit a better comparison between both models, a new expression for the thermodynamic equilibrium condition has been derived in the present work. In the case of the first model, the agreement was obtained using only the physical constants of massive gold. In applying the second model, however, one is compelled to assume the existence of a liquid layer having a thickness of about 6 \AA{}.

3,074 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A potential model intended to be a general purpose model for the condensed phases of water is presented, which gives excellent predictions for the densities at 1 bar with a maximum density at 278 K and an averaged difference with experiment of 7 x 10(-4) g/cm3.
Abstract: A potential model intended to be a general purpose model for the condensed phases of water is presented. TIP4P/2005 is a rigid four site model which consists of three fixed point charges and one Lennard-Jones center. The parametrization has been based on a fit of the temperature of maximum density (indirectly estimated from the melting point of hexagonal ice), the stability of several ice polymorphs and other commonly used target quantities. The calculated properties include a variety of thermodynamic properties of the liquid and solid phases, the phase diagram involving condensed phases, properties at melting and vaporization, dielectric constant, pair distribution function, and self-diffusion coefficient. These properties cover a temperature range from 123to573K and pressures up to 40000bar. The model gives an impressive performance for this variety of properties and thermodynamic conditions. For example, it gives excellent predictions for the densities at 1bar with a maximum density at 278K and an aver...

3,009 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the properties of a new family of metallic alloys which exhibit excellent glass forming ability are reported, where the critical cooling rate to retain the glassy phase is of the order of 10 K/s or less.
Abstract: We report on the properties of one example of a new family of metallic alloys which exhibit excellent glass forming ability. The critical cooling rate to retain the glassy phase is of the order of 10 K/s or less. Large samples in the form of rods ranging up to 14 mm in diameter have been prepared by casting in silica containers. The undercooled liquid alloy has been studied over a wide range of temperatures between the glass transition temperature and the thermodynamic melting point of the equilibrium crystalline alloy using scanning calorimetry. Crystallization of the material has been studied. Some characteristic properties of the new material are presented. The origins of exceptional glass forming ability of these new alloys are discussed.

2,305 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the physical and chemical properties of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are reviewed from the point of view of their possible application as electrolytes in electrochemical processes and devices.

2,241 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023348
2022752
2021389
2020490
2019544
2018541