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# Membership function

About: Membership function is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 15795 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 418366 citation(s).

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01 Aug 1996

TL;DR: A separation theorem for convex fuzzy sets is proved without requiring that the fuzzy sets be disjoint.

Abstract: A fuzzy set is a class of objects with a continuum of grades of membership. Such a set is characterized by a membership (characteristic) function which assigns to each object a grade of membership ranging between zero and one. The notions of inclusion, union, intersection, complement, relation, convexity, etc., are extended to such sets, and various properties of these notions in the context of fuzzy sets are established. In particular, a separation theorem for convex fuzzy sets is proved without requiring that the fuzzy sets be disjoint.

50,974 citations

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TL;DR: The theory of possibility described in this paper is related to the theory of fuzzy sets by defining the concept of a possibility distribution as a fuzzy restriction which acts as an elastic constraint on the values that may be assigned to a variable.

Abstract: The theory of possibility described in this paper is related to the theory of fuzzy sets by defining the concept of a possibility distribution as a fuzzy restriction which acts as an elastic constraint on the values that may be assigned to a variable. More specifically, if F is a fuzzy subset of a universe of discourse U={u} which is characterized by its membership function μF, then a proposition of the form “X is F,” where X is a variable taking values in U, induces a possibility distribution ∏X which equates the possibility of X taking the value u to μF(u)—the compatibility of u with F. In this way, X becomes a fuzzy variable which is associated with the possibility distribution ∏x in much the same way as a random variable is associated with a probability distribution. In general, a variable may be associated both with a possibility distribution and a probability distribution, with the weak connection between the two expressed as the possibility/probability consistency principle. A thesis advanced in this paper is that the imprecision that is intrinsic in natural languages is, in the main, possibilistic rather than probabilistic in nature. Thus, by employing the concept of a possibility distribution, a proposition, p, in a natural language may be translated into a procedure which computes the probability distribution of a set of attributes which are implied by p. Several types of conditional translation rules are discussed and, in particular, a translation rule for propositions of the form “X is F is α-possible,” where α is a number in the interval [0, 1], is formulated and illustrated by examples.

8,549 citations

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TL;DR: A reverse-flow technique is described for the solution of a functional equation arising in connection with a decision process in which the termination time is defined implicitly by the condition that the process stops when the system under control enters a specified set of states in its state space.

Abstract: By decision-making in a fuzzy environment is meant a decision process in which the goals and/or the constraints, but not necessarily the system under control, are fuzzy in nature. This means that the goals and/or the constraints constitute classes of alternatives whose boundaries are not sharply defined.
An example of a fuzzy constraint is: “The cost of A should not be substantially higher than α,” where α is a specified constant. Similarly, an example of a fuzzy goal is: “x should be in the vicinity of x0,” where x0 is a constant. The italicized words are the sources of fuzziness in these examples.
Fuzzy goals and fuzzy constraints can be defined precisely as fuzzy sets in the space of alternatives. A fuzzy decision, then, may be viewed as an intersection of the given goals and constraints. A maximizing decision is defined as a point in the space of alternatives at which the membership function of a fuzzy decision attains its maximum value.
The use of these concepts is illustrated by examples involving multistage decision processes in which the system under control is either deterministic or stochastic. By using dynamic programming, the determination of a maximizing decision is reduced to the solution of a system of functional equations. A reverse-flow technique is described for the solution of a functional equation arising in connection with a decision process in which the termination time is defined implicitly by the condition that the process stops when the system under control enters a specified set of states in its state space.

6,671 citations

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01 Dec 1994

TL;DR: This chapter discusses Fuzzy Systems Simulation, specifically the development of Membership Functions and the Extension Principle, and some of the methods used to derive these functions.

Abstract: About the Author. Preface to the Third Edition. 1 Introduction. The Case for Imprecision. A Historical Perspective. The Utility of Fuzzy Systems. Limitations of Fuzzy Systems. The Illusion: Ignoring Uncertainty and Accuracy. Uncertainty and Information. The Unknown. Fuzzy Sets and Membership. Chance Versus Fuzziness. Sets as Points in Hypercubes. Summary. References. Problems. 2 Classical Sets and Fuzzy Sets. Classical Sets. Operations on Classical Sets. Properties of Classical (Crisp) Sets. Mapping of Classical Sets to Functions. Fuzzy Sets. Fuzzy Set Operations. Properties of Fuzzy Sets. Alternative Fuzzy Set Operations. Summary. References. Problems. 3 Classical Relations and Fuzzy Relations. Cartesian Product. Crisp Relations. Cardinality of Crisp Relations. Operations on Crisp Relations. Properties of Crisp Relations. Composition. Fuzzy Relations. Cardinality of Fuzzy Relations. Operations on Fuzzy Relations. Properties of Fuzzy Relations. Fuzzy Cartesian Product and Composition. Tolerance and Equivalence Relations. Crisp Equivalence Relation. Crisp Tolerance Relation. Fuzzy Tolerance and Equivalence Relations. Value Assignments. Cosine Amplitude. Max Min Method. Other Similarity Methods. Other Forms of the Composition Operation. Summary. References. Problems. 4 Properties of Membership Functions, Fuzzification, and Defuzzification. Features of the Membership Function. Various Forms. Fuzzification. Defuzzification to Crisp Sets. -Cuts for Fuzzy Relations. Defuzzification to Scalars. Summary. References. Problems. 5 Logic and Fuzzy Systems. Part I Logic. Classical Logic. Proof. Fuzzy Logic. Approximate Reasoning. Other Forms of the Implication Operation. Part II Fuzzy Systems. Natural Language. Linguistic Hedges. Fuzzy (Rule-Based) Systems. Graphical Techniques of Inference. Summary. References. Problems. 6 Development of Membership Functions. Membership Value Assignments. Intuition. Inference. Rank Ordering. Neural Networks. Genetic Algorithms. Inductive Reasoning. Summary. References. Problems. 7 Automated Methods for Fuzzy Systems. Definitions. Batch Least Squares Algorithm. Recursive Least Squares Algorithm. Gradient Method. Clustering Method. Learning From Examples. Modified Learning From Examples. Summary. References. Problems. 8 Fuzzy Systems Simulation. Fuzzy Relational Equations. Nonlinear Simulation Using Fuzzy Systems. Fuzzy Associative Memories (FAMS). Summary. References. Problems. 9 Decision Making with Fuzzy Information. Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation. Fuzzy Ordering. Nontransitive Ranking. Preference and Consensus. Multiobjective Decision Making. Fuzzy Bayesian Decision Method. Decision Making Under Fuzzy States and Fuzzy Actions. Summary. References. Problems. 10 Fuzzy Classification. Classification by Equivalence Relations. Crisp Relations. Fuzzy Relations. Cluster Analysis. Cluster Validity. c-Means Clustering. Hard c-Means (HCM). Fuzzy c-Means (FCM). Fuzzy c-Means Algorithm. Classification Metric. Hardening the Fuzzy c-Partition. Similarity Relations from Clustering. Summary. References. Problems. 11 Fuzzy Pattern Recognition. Feature Analysis. Partitions of the Feature Space. Single-Sample Identification. Multifeature Pattern Recognition. Image Processing. Summary. References. Problems. 12 Fuzzy Arithmetic and the Extension Principle. Extension Principle. Crisp Functions, Mapping, and Relations. Functions of Fuzzy Sets Extension Principle. Fuzzy Transform (Mapping). Practical Considerations. Fuzzy Arithmetic. Interval Analysis in Arithmetic. Approximate Methods of Extension. Vertex Method. DSW Algorithm. Restricted DSW Algorithm. Comparisons. Summary. References. Problems. 13 Fuzzy Control Systems. Control System Design Problem. Control (Decision) Surface. Assumptions in a Fuzzy Control System Design. Simple Fuzzy Logic Controllers. Examples of Fuzzy Control System Design. Aircraft Landing Control Problem. Fuzzy Engineering Process Control. Classical Feedback Control. Fuzzy Control. Fuzzy Statistical Process Control. Measurement Data Traditional SPC. Attribute Data Traditional SPC. Industrial Applications. Summary. References. Problems. 14 Miscellaneous Topics. Fuzzy Optimization. One-Dimensional Optimization. Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping. Concept Variables and Causal Relations. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps. Agent-Based Models. Summary. References. Problems. 15 Monotone Measures: Belief, Plausibility, Probability, and Possibility. Monotone Measures. Belief and Plausibility. Evidence Theory. Probability Measures. Possibility and Necessity Measures. Possibility Distributions as Fuzzy Sets. Possibility Distributions Derived from Empirical Intervals. Deriving Possibility Distributions from Overlapping Intervals. Redistributing Weight from Nonconsonant to Consonant Intervals. Comparison of Possibility Theory and Probability Theory. Summary. References. Problems. Index.

4,957 citations

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TL;DR: The fuzzy sets uncertainty and information is one book that the authors really recommend you to read, to get more solutions in solving this problem.

Abstract: (1990). Fuzzy Sets, Uncertainty, and Information. Journal of the Operational Research Society: Vol. 41, No. 9, pp. 884-886.

3,099 citations