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Membrane

About: Membrane is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 157752 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 4306645 citation(s).


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Journal ArticleDOI
18 Feb 1972-Science
TL;DR: Results strongly indicate that the bivalent antibodies produce an aggregation of the surface immunoglobulin molecules in the plane of the membrane, which can occur only if the immunoglOBulin molecules are free to diffuse in the membrane.
Abstract: A fluid mosaic model is presented for the gross organization and structure of the proteins and lipids of biological membranes. The model is consistent with the restrictions imposed by thermodynamics. In this model, the proteins that are integral to the membrane are a heterogeneous set of globular molecules, each arranged in an amphipathic structure, that is, with the ionic and highly polar groups protruding from the membrane into the aqueous phase, and the nonpolar groups largely buried in the hydrophobic interior of the membrane. These globular molecules are partially embedded in a matrix of phospholipid. The bulk of the phospholipid is organized as a discontinuous, fluid bilayer, although a small fraction of the lipid may interact specifically with the membrane proteins. The fluid mosaic structure is therefore formally analogous to a two-dimensional oriented solution of integral proteins (or lipoproteins) in the viscous phospholipid bilayer solvent. Recent experiments with a wide variety of techniqes and several different membrane systems are described, all of which abet consistent with, and add much detail to, the fluid mosaic model. It therefore seems appropriate to suggest possible mechanisms for various membrane functions and membrane-mediated phenomena in the light of the model. As examples, experimentally testable mechanisms are suggested for cell surface changes in malignant transformation, and for cooperative effects exhibited in the interactions of membranes with some specific ligands. Note added in proof: Since this article was written, we have obtained electron microscopic evidence (69) that the concanavalin A binding sites on the membranes of SV40 virus-transformed mouse fibroblasts (3T3 cells) are more clustered than the sites on the membranes of normal cells, as predicted by the hypothesis represented in Fig. 7B. T-here has also appeared a study by Taylor et al. (70) showing the remarkable effects produced on lymphocytes by the addition of antibodies directed to their surface immunoglobulin molecules. The antibodies induce a redistribution and pinocytosis of these surface immunoglobulins, so that within about 30 minutes at 37 degrees C the surface immunoglobulins are completely swept out of the membrane. These effects do not occur, however, if the bivalent antibodies are replaced by their univalent Fab fragments or if the antibody experiments are carried out at 0 degrees C instead of 37 degrees C. These and related results strongly indicate that the bivalent antibodies produce an aggregation of the surface immunoglobulin molecules in the plane of the membrane, which can occur only if the immunoglobulin molecules are free to diffuse in the membrane. This aggregation then appears to trigger off the pinocytosis of the membrane components by some unknown mechanism. Such membrane transformations may be of crucial importance in the induction of an antibody response to an antigen, as well as iv other processes of cell differentiation.

7,497 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: How do cells apply anabolic and catabolic enzymes, translocases and transporters, plus the intrinsic physical phase behaviour of lipids and their interactions with membrane proteins, to create the unique compositions and multiple functions of their individual membranes?
Abstract: Throughout the biological world, a 30 A hydrophobic film typically delimits the environments that serve as the margin between life and death for individual cells. Biochemical and biophysical findings have provided a detailed model of the composition and structure of membranes, which includes levels of dynamic organization both across the lipid bilayer (lipid asymmetry) and in the lateral dimension (lipid domains) of membranes. How do cells apply anabolic and catabolic enzymes, translocases and transporters, plus the intrinsic physical phase behaviour of lipids and their interactions with membrane proteins, to create the unique compositions and multiple functionalities of their individual membranes?

4,862 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Small amounts of myoglobin, beta-lactoglobulin, and other proteins and peptides can be spotted or electroblotted onto polyvinylidene difluoride membranes, stained with Coomassie Blue, and sequenced directly, suggesting that PVDF membranes are superior supports for sequence analysis of picomole quantities of proteins purified by gel electrophoresis.
Abstract: Small amounts (7-250 pmol) of myoglobin, beta-lactoglobulin, and other proteins and peptides can be spotted or electroblotted onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes, stained with Coomassie Blue, and sequenced directly. The membranes are not chemically activated or pretreated with Polybrene before usage. The average repetitive yields and initial coupling of proteins spotted or blotted into PVDF membranes ranged between 84-98% and 30-108% respectively, and were comparable with the yields measured for proteins spotted onto Polybrene-coated glass fiber discs. The results suggest that PVDF membranes are superior supports for sequence analysis of picomole quantities of proteins purified by gel electrophoresis.

4,851 citations

Book
01 Jan 1991
Abstract: I: Introduction. II: Materials and Material Properties. III. Preparation of Synthetic Membranes. IV: Characterisation of Membranes. V: Transport in Membranes. VI: Membrane Processes. VII: Polarisation Phenomena and Membrane Fouling. VIII: Module and Process Design. Appendix 1. Appendix 2. Answers to Exercises: Solved Problems. Answers to Exercises: Unsolved Problems. List of Symbols. Index.

4,275 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is found that as the surface charge of the lipid lamellae is increased, the amount of cation per μmle of lipid increases, and the phospholipid liquid crystalline structures appear to “bind” or “capture” cations.
Abstract: The diffusion of univalent cations and anions out of spontaneously formed liquid crystals of lecithin is remarkably similar to the diffusion of such ions across biological membranes. If the unit structure of the liquid crystal is accepted as being that of a bimolecular leaflet, then these leaflets have been shown to be many orders of magnitude more permeable to anions than to cations. The diffusion rate for cations is very significantly controlled by the sign and magnitude of the surface charge at the water/lipid interface. There is a decrease of the diffusion rate for cations as the negative charge on the lipid structure decreases—which diminishes to zero for a positively charged membrane—the diffusion rate of anions remaining very high. The exchange diffusion rate of Cl− and I− was greater than that of F−, NO3−, SO42− and HPO42− but no significant differences were detectable for the cation series, Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+ and choline. The membranes are very permeable to water. Because the diffusion rate of cations is low, the phospholipid liquid crystalline structures appear to “bind” or “capture” cations. It is found that as the surface charge of the lipid lamellae is increased, the amount of cation per μmle of lipid increases. It is argued that if the cation is sequestered in aqueous compartments between the bimolecular leaflets, and if the thickness of the aqueous compartments is determined by the surface charge density of the lipid head groups and by the ionic strength of the aqueous phase in accordance with double-layer theory, the amount of cation trapped would also be expected to vary.

4,054 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2022437
20216,864
20207,515
20197,660
20187,461
20177,250