Memory B cell
About: Memory B cell is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1025 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 55483 citation(s).
15 Sep 1999-Blood
Abstract: Despite having several characteristics of naive B cells, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells have been shown in some cases to have somatically mutated Ig variable region genes, indicating that the cell of origin has passed through the germinal center A previous study of patients with CLL found an association between lack of somatic mutation and trisomy 12 and, therefore, possibly with a less favorable prognosis We have sequenced the Ig V(H) genes of the tumor cells of 84 patients with CLL and correlated our findings with clinical features A total of 38 cases (452%) showed >/= 98% sequence homology with the nearest germline V(H) gene; 46 cases (548%) showed >2% somatic mutation Unmutated V(H) genes were significantly associated with V1-69 and D3-3 usage, with atypical morphology; isolated trisomy 12, advanced stage and progressive disease Survival was significantly worse for patients with unmutated V(H) genes irrespective of stage Median survival for stage A patients with unmutated V(H) genes was 95 months compared with 293 months for patients whose tumors had mutated V(H) genes (P =0008) The simplest explanation is that CLL comprises 2 different diseases with different clinical courses One, arising from a memory B cell, has a benign course, the other, arising from a naive B cell, is more malignant
Topics: Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (54%), Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (53%), Naive B cell (52%) ...read more
13 Dec 2002-Science
Abstract: Production of antibodies can last for a lifetime, through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. Here, we show that human memory B lymphocytes proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells in response to polyclonal stimuli, such as bystander T cell help and CpG DNA. Furthermore, plasma cells secreting antibodies to recall antigens are produced in vivo at levels proportional to the frequency of specific memory B cells, even several years after antigenic stimulation. Although antigen boosting leads to a transient increase in specific antibody levels, ongoing polyclonal activation of memory B cells offers a means to maintain serological memory for a human lifetime.
01 Jan 1994-Annual Review of Immunology
Abstract: CD40 is an integral membrane protein found on the surface of B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, follicular dendritic cells, hematopoietic progenitor cells, epithelial cells, and carcinomas. It is a 45-50 kDa glycoprotein of 277 aa, which is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. The CD40 gene maps to human chromosome 20q11-2-q13-2. CD40 binds to a ligand (CD40-L) which is an approximately 35 kDa glycoprotein of 261 aa, a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. The CD40-L gene maps to human chromosome Xq24. This CD40-L is expressed on activated T cells, mostly CD4+ but also some CD8+ as well as basophils/mast cells. The CD40-L is defective in the X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome. Cross-linking of CD40 with immobilized anti-CD40 or cells expressing CD40-L induces B cells to proliferate strongly, and addition of IL-4 or IL-13 allows the generation of factor-dependent long-term normal human B cell lines and the secretion of IgE following isotype switching. Addition of IL-10 results in very high immunoglobulin production with limited cell proliferation. IL-10 induces naive B cells to produce IgG3, IgG1, and IgA1, and further addition of TGF beta permits the secretion of IgA2. Several evidences suggest that CD40-dependent activation of B cells is important for the generation of memory B cells within the germinal centers: (i) CD40 activated germinal center B cells cultured in the presence of IL-4 acquire a memory B cell phenotype, (ii) CD40 activated B cells can undergo isotype switching, (iii) the deficit of CD40-L results in the hyper-IgM syndrome characterized by lack of germinal centers in secondary lymphoid organ follicles and lack of IgG, IgA, and IgE, and (iv) CD40-L positive T cells are present in secondary follicles. Thymic epithelial cells, activated monocytes, and dendritic cells express CD40 antigen which may be involved in an enhanced cytokine production by these cells, allowing an amplification of T cell proliferation. Finally, as other members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family have been shown to bind several ligands, it is possible that CD40 may bind other ligands that may trigger CD40 on different cell types such as hematopoietic cells or epithelial cells.
02 Nov 1998-Journal of Experimental Medicine
Abstract: Immunoglobulin (Ig)M+IgD+ B cells are generally assumed to represent antigen-inexperienced, naive B cells expressing variable (V) region genes without somatic mutations. We report here that human IgM+IgD+ peripheral blood (PB) B cells expressing the CD27 cell surface antigen carry mutated V genes, in contrast to CD27-negative IgM+IgD+ B cells. IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells resemble class-switched and IgM-only memory cells in terms of cell phenotype, and comprise ∼15% of PB B lymphocytes in healthy adults. Moreover, a very small population (<1% of PB B cells) of highly mutated IgD-only B cells was detected, which likely represent the PB counterpart of IgD-only tonsillar germinal center and plasma cells. Overall, the B cell pool in the PB of adults consists of ∼40% mutated memory B cells and 60% unmutated, naive IgD+CD27− B cells (including CD5+ B cells). In the somatically mutated B cells, VH region genes carry a two- to threefold higher load of somatic mutation than rearranged Vκ genes. This might be due to an intrinsically lower mutation rate in κ light chain genes compared with heavy chain genes and/or result from κ light chain gene rearrangements in GC B cells. A common feature of the somatically mutated B cell subsets is the expression of the CD27 cell surface antigen which therefore may represent a general marker for memory B cells in humans.
05 Feb 2021-Science
Abstract: Understanding immune memory to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical for improving diagnostics and vaccines and for assessing the likely future course of the COVID-19 pandemic. We analyzed multiple compartments of circulating immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 in 254 samples from 188 COVID-19 cases, including 43 samples at ≥6 months after infection. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the spike protein was relatively stable over 6+ months. Spike-specific memory B cells were more abundant at 6 months than at 1 month after symptom onset. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells declined with a half-life of 3 to 5 months. By studying antibody, memory B cell, CD4+ T cell, and CD8+ T cell memory to SARS-CoV-2 in an integrated manner, we observed that each component of SARS-CoV-2 immune memory exhibited distinct kinetics.