Topic

# Message authentication code

About: Message authentication code is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 5907 publications have been published within this topic receiving 134294 citations. The topic is also known as: MAC & Message Authentication Code.

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01 Feb 1997

TL;DR: This document describes HMAC, a mechanism for message authentication using cryptographic hash functions that can be used with any iterative cryptographic hash function, e.g., MD5, SHA-1, in combination with a secret shared key.

Abstract: This document describes HMAC, a mechanism for message authentication using cryptographic hash functions. HMAC can be used with any iterative cryptographic hash function, e.g., MD5, SHA-1, in combination with a secret shared key. The cryptographic strength of HMAC depends on the properties of the underlying hash function.

2,265 citations

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04 Jun 2007TL;DR: This work presents PUF designs that exploit inherent delay characteristics of wires and transistors that differ from chip to chip, and describes how PUFs can enable low-cost authentication of individual ICs and generate volatile secret keys for cryptographic operations.

Abstract: Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are innovative circuit primitives that extract secrets from physical characteristics of integrated circuits (ICs). We present PUF designs that exploit inherent delay characteristics of wires and transistors that differ from chip to chip, and describe how PUFs can enable low-cost authentication of individual ICs and generate volatile secret keys for cryptographic operations.

2,014 citations

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01 Jan 2007

1,944 citations

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06 Aug 2001TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a list of figures in the context of digital signatures and message authentication for general cryptographic protocols, including encryption, digital signatures, message authentication, and digital signatures.

Abstract: List of figures Preface Acknowledgements 5. Encryption schemes 6. Digital signatures and message authentication 7. General cryptographic protocols Appendix C: corrections and additions to volume I Bibliography Index.

1,889 citations

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TL;DR: The concept of fabrication complexity is introduced as a way of quantifying the difficulty of materially cloning physical systems with arbitrary internal states as primitives for physical analogs of cryptosystems.

Abstract: Modern cryptography relies on algorithmic one-way functions—numerical functions which are easy to compute but very difficult to invert. This dissertation introduces physical one-way functions and physical one-way hash functions as primitives for physical analogs of cryptosystems.
Physical one-way functions are defined with respect to a physical probe and physical system in some unknown state. A function is called a physical one-way function if (a) there exists a deterministic physical interaction between the probe and the system which produces an output in constant time; (b) inverting the function using either computational or physical means is difficult; (c) simulating the physical interaction is computationally demanding and (d) the physical system is easy to make but difficult to clone.
Physical one-way hash functions produce fixed-length output regardless of the size of the input. These hash functions can be obtained by sampling the output of physical one-way functions. For the system described below, it is shown that there is a strong correspondence between the properties of physical one-way hash functions and their algorithmic counterparts. In particular, it is demonstrated that they are collision-resistant and that they exhibit the avalanche effect, i.e., a small change in the physical system causes a large change in the hash value.
An inexpensive prototype authentication system based on physical one-way hash functions is designed, implemented, and analyzed. The prototype uses a disordered three-dimensional microstructure as the underlying physical system and coherent radiation as the probe. It is shown that the output of the interaction between the physical system and the probe can be used to robustly derive a unique tamper-resistant identifier at a very low cost per bit. The explicit use of three-dimensional structures marks a departure from prior efforts. Two protocols, including a one-time pad protocol, that illustrate the utility of these hash functions are presented and potential attacks on the authentication system are considered.
Finally, the concept of fabrication complexity is introduced as a way of quantifying the difficulty of materially cloning physical systems with arbitrary internal states. Fabrication complexity is discussed in the context of an idealized machine—a Universal Turing Machine augmented with a fabrication head—which transforms algorithmically minimal descriptions of physical systems into the systems themselves. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

1,665 citations