Metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy
About: Metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 14426 publications have been published within this topic receiving 243388 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A low-temperature, large-scale, and versatile synthetic process is needed before ZnO nanowire arrays find realistic applications in solar energy conversion, light emission, and other promising areas, and the ease of commercial scale-up is presented.
Abstract: Since the first report of ultraviolet lasing from ZnO nanowires, substantial effort has been devoted to the development of synthetic methodologies for one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures. Among the various techniques described in the literature, evaporation and condensation processes are favored for their simplicity and high-quality products, but these gas-phase approaches generally require economically prohibitive temperatures of 800–900 8C. Despite recent MOCVD schemes that reduced the deposition temperature to 450 8C by using organometallic zinc precursors, the commercial potential of gas-phase-grown ZnO nanowires remains constrained by the expensive and/or insulating (for example, Al2O3) substrates required for oriented growth, as well as the size and cost of the vapor deposition systems. A low-temperature, large-scale, and versatile synthetic process is needed before ZnO nanowire arrays find realistic applications in solar energy conversion, light emission, and other promising areas. Solution approaches to ZnO nanowires are appealing because of their low growth temperatures and good potential for scale-up. In this regard, Vayssieres et al. developed a hydrothermal process for producing arrays of ZnO microrods and nanorods on conducting glass substrates at 95 8C. Recently, a seeded growth process was used to make helical ZnO rods and columns at a similar temperature. Here we expand on these synthetic methods to produce homogeneous and dense arrays of ZnO nanowires that can be grown on arbitrary substrates under mild aqueous conditions. We present data for arrays on four-inch (ca. 10 cm) silicon wafers and two-inch plastic substrates, which demonstrate the ease of commercial scale-up. The simple two-step procedure yields oriented nanowire films with the largest surface area yet reported for nanowire arrays. The growth process ensures that a majority of the nanowires in the array are in direct contact with the substrate and provide a continuous pathway for carrier transport, an important feature for future electronic devices based on these materials. Well-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays were grown using a simple two-step process. In the first step, ZnO nanocrystals (5–10 nm in diameter) were spin-cast several times onto a four-inch Si(100) wafer to form a 50–200-nm thick film of crystal seeds. Between coatings, the wafer was annealed at 150 8C to ensure particle adhesion to the wafer surface. The ZnO nanocrystals were prepared according to the method of Pacholski. A NaOH solution in methanol (0.03m) was added slowly to a solution of zinc acetate dihydrate (0.01m) in methanol at 60 8C and stirred for two hours. The resulting nanoparticles are spherical and stable for at least two weeks in solution. After uniformly coating the silicon wafer with ZnO nanocrystals, hydrothermal ZnO growth was carried out by suspending the wafer upside-down in an open crystallizing dish filled with an aqueous solution of zinc nitrate hydrate (0.025m) and methenamine or diethylenetriamine (0.025m) at 90 8C. Reaction times spanned from 0.5 to 6 h. The wafer was then removed from solution, rinsed with deionized water, and dried. A field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to examine the morphology of the nanowire array across the entire wafer, while single nanowires were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nanowire crystallinity and growth direction were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction techniques. SEM images taken of several four-inch samples showed that the entire wafer was coated with a highly uniform and densely packed array of ZnO nanowires (Figure 1). X-ray diffraction (not shown) gave a wurtzite ZnO pattern with an enhanced (002) peak resulting from the vertical orientation of the nanowires. A typical synthesis (1.5 h) yielded wires with diameters ranging between 40–80 nm and lengths of 1.5–2 mm.
TL;DR: In this article, the chemical and thermal stability of epitaxial nitride films is discussed in relation to the problems of deposition processes and the advantages for applications in high-power and high-temperature devices.
Abstract: Recent research results pertaining to InN, GaN and AlN are reviewed, focusing on the different growth techniques of Group III-nitride crystals and epitaxial films, heterostructures and devices. The chemical and thermal stability of epitaxial nitride films is discussed in relation to the problems of deposition processes and the advantages for applications in high-power and high-temperature devices. The development of growth methods like metalorganic chemical vapour deposition and plasma-induced molecular beam epitaxy has resulted in remarkable improvements in the structural, optical and electrical properties. New developments in precursor chemistry, plasma-based nitrogen sources, substrates, the growth of nucleation layers and selective growth are covered. Deposition conditions and methods used to grow alloys for optical bandgap and lattice engineering are introduced. The review is concluded with a description of recent Group III-nitride semiconductor devices such as bright blue and white light-emitting diodes, the first blue-emitting laser, high-power transistors, and a discussion of further applications in surface acoustic wave devices and sensors.
TL;DR: In this article, metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth and structural and photoluminescent characteristics of ZnO nanorods were reported, and they were grown on Al2O3(00⋅1) substrates at 400°C without employing any metal catalysts usually needed in other methods.
Abstract: We report metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxial growth and structural and photoluminescent characteristics of ZnO nanorods. The nanorods were grown on Al2O3(00⋅1) substrates at 400 °C without employing any metal catalysts usually needed in other methods. Electron microscopy revealed that nanorods with uniform distributions in their diameters, lengths, and densities were grown vertically from the substrates. The mean diameter of the nanorods is as narrow as 25 nm. In addition, x-ray diffraction measurements clearly show that ZnO nanorods were grown epitaxially with homogeneous in-plane alignment as well as a c-axis orientation. More importantly, from photoluminescence spectra of the nanorods strong and narrow excitonic emission and extremely weak deep level emission were observed, indicating that the nanorods are of high optical quality.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed the development of indium nitride (InN) semiconductors from its evolution to the present day and discussed the most popular growth techniques, metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy.
Abstract: During the last few years the interest in the indium nitride (InN) semiconductor has been remarkable. There have been significant improvements in the growth of InN films. High quality single crystalline InN film with two-dimensional growth and high growth rate are now routinely obtained. The background carrier concentration and Hall mobility have also improved. Observation of strong photoluminescence near the band edge is reported very recently, leading to conflicts concerning the exact band gap of InN. Attempts have also been made on the deposition of InN based heterostructures for the fabrication of InN based electronic devices. Preliminary evidence of two-dimensional electron gas accumulation in the InN and studies on InN-based field-effect transistor structure are reported. In this article, the work accomplished in the InN research, from its evolution to till now, is reviewed. The In containing alloys or other nitrides (AlGaInN, GaN,AlN) are not discussed here. We mainly concentrate on the growth, characterization, and recent developments in InN research. The most popular growth techniques, metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy, are discussed in detail with their recent progress. Important phenomena in the epitaxialgrowth of InN as well as the problems remaining for future study are also discussed.
TL;DR: In this paper, the structural, mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties of substrates used for gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxy are compiled, and the properties of GaN films deposited on these substrates are reviewed.
Abstract: In this review, the structural, mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties of substrates used for gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxy are compiled, and the properties of GaN films deposited on these substrates are reviewed. Among semiconductors, GaN is unique; most of its applications uses thin GaN films deposited on foreign substrates (materials other than GaN); that is, heteroepitaxial thin films. As a consequence of heteroepitaxy, the quality of the GaN films is very dependent on the properties of the substrate—both the inherent properties such as lattice constants and thermal expansion coefficients, and process induced properties such as surface roughness, step height and terrace width, and wetting behavior. The consequences of heteroepitaxy are discussed, including the crystallographic orientation and polarity, surface morphology, and inherent and thermally induced stress in the GaN films. Defects such as threading dislocations, inversion domains, and the unintentional incorporation of impurities into the epitaxial GaN layer resulting from heteroepitaxy are presented along with their effect on device processing and performance. A summary of the structure and lattice constants for many semiconductors, metals, metal nitrides, and oxides used or considered for GaN epitaxy is presented. The properties, synthesis, advantages and disadvantages of the six most commonly employed substrates (sapphire, 6H-SiC, Si, GaAs, LiGaO 2 , and AlN) are presented. Useful substrate properties such as lattice constants, defect densities, elastic moduli, thermal expansion coefficients, thermal conductivities, etching characteristics, and reactivities under deposition conditions are presented. Efforts to reduce the defect densities and to optimize the electrical and optical properties of the GaN epitaxial film by substrate etching, nitridation, and slight misorientation from the (0 0 0 1) crystal plane are reviewed. The requirements, the obstacles, and the results to date to produce zincblende GaN on 3C-SiC/Si(0 0 1) and GaAs are discussed. Tables summarizing measures of the GaN quality such as XRD rocking curve FWHM, photoluminescence peak position and FWHM, and electron mobilities for GaN epitaxial layers produced by MOCVD, MBE, and HVPE for each substrate are given. The initial results using GaN substrates, prepared as bulk crystals and as free-standing epitaxial films, are reviewed. Finally, the promise and the directions of research on new potential substrates, such as compliant and porous substrates are described.
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