About: Methane is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 47798 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1176685 citation(s). The topic is also known as: CH4 & marsh gas.
Stanley L. Miller1•Institutions (1)
15 May 1953-Science
TL;DR: In this study, an apparatus was built to circulate CHI4, NH3, H2O, and H2 past an electric discharge, and the resulting mixture has been tested for amino acids by paper chromatography.
Abstract: atmosphere of methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen instead of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, and water was suggested by Oparin (1) and has been-given emphasis recently by Urey (2) and Bernal (3) In order to test this hypothesis, an apparatus was built to circulate CHI4, NH3, H2O, and H2 past an electric discharge The resulting mixture has been tested for amino acids by paper chromatography Electrical discharge was used to form free radicals instead of ultraviolet light, because quartz absorbs wavelengths short enough to cause photo-dissociation of the gases Electrical discharge may have played a significant role in the formation of compounds in the
05 Oct 2000-Nature
Abstract: A large fraction of globally produced methane is converted to CO2 by anaerobic oxidation in marine sediments. Strong geochemical evidence for net methane consumption in anoxic sediments is based on methane profiles, radiotracer experiments and stable carbon isotope data. But the elusive microorganisms mediating this reaction have not yet been isolated, and the pathway of anaerobic oxidation of methane is insufficiently understood. Recent data suggest that certain archaea reverse the process of methanogenesis by interaction with sulphate-reducing bacteria. Here we provide microscopic evidence for a structured consortium of archaea and sulphate-reducing bacteria, which we identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization using specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. In this example of a structured archaeal-bacterial symbiosis, the archaea grow in dense aggregates of about 100 cells and are surrounded by sulphate-reducing bacteria. These aggregates were abundant in gas-hydrate-rich sediments with extremely high rates of methane-based sulphate reduction, and apparently mediate anaerobic oxidation of methane.
01 Aug 1995-Journal of Animal Science
TL;DR: Knowing the factors that impact methane production can result in the development of mitigation strategies to reduce methane losses by cattle and implementation of these strategies should result in enhanced animal productivity and decreased contributions by cattle to the atmospheric methane budget.
Abstract: Increasing atmospheric concentrations of methane have led scientists to examine its sources of origin. Ruminant livestock can produce 250 to 500 L of methane per day. This level of production results in estimates of the contribution by cattle to global warming that may occur in the next 50 to 100 yr to be a little less than 2%. Many factors influence methane emissions from cattle and include the following: level of feed intake, type of carbohydrate in the diet, feed processing, addition of lipids or ionophores to the diet, and alterations in the ruminal microflora. Manipulation of these factors can reduce methane emissions from cattle. Many techniques exist to quantify methane emissions from individual or groups of animals. Enclosure techniques are precise but require trained animals and may limit animal movement. Isotopic and nonisotopic tracer techniques may also be used effectively. Prediction equations based on fermentation balance or feed characteristics have been used to estimate methane production. These equations are useful, but the assumptions and conditions that must be met for each equation limit their ability to accurately predict methane production. Methane production from groups of animals can be measured by mass balance, micrometeorological, or tracer methods. These techniques can measure methane emissions from animals in either indoor or outdoor enclosures. Use of these techniques and knowledge of the factors that impact methane production can result in the development of mitigation strategies to reduce methane losses by cattle. Implementation of these strategies should result in enhanced animal productivity and decreased contributions by cattle to the atmospheric methane budget.
01 Jan 1989-Aiche Journal
Abstract: Intrinsic rate equations were derived for the steam reforming of methane, accompanied by water-gas shift on a Ni/MgAl2O4 catalyst. A large number of detailed reaction mechanisms were considered. Thermodynamic analysis helped in reducing the number of possible mechanisms. Twenty one sets of three rate equations were retained and subjected to model discrimination and parameter estimation. The parameter estimates in the best model are statistically significant and thermodynamically consistent.
09 Apr 2015-Nature
Abstract: Large quantities of organic carbon are stored in frozen soils (permafrost) within Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. A warming climate can induce environmental changes that accelerate the microbial breakdown of organic carbon and the release of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane. This feedback can accelerate climate change, but the magnitude and timing of greenhouse gas emission from these regions and their impact on climate change remain uncertain. Here we find that current evidence suggests a gradual and prolonged release of greenhouse gas emissions in a warming climate and present a research strategy with which to target poorly understood aspects of permafrost carbon dynamics.