Topic

# Metric (mathematics)

About: Metric (mathematics) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 42617 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 836571 citation(s). The topic is also known as: distance function & metric.

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01 Jan 1968

TL;DR: Weak Convergence in Metric Spaces as discussed by the authors is one of the most common modes of convergence in metric spaces, and it can be seen as a form of weak convergence in metric space.

Abstract: Weak Convergence in Metric Spaces. The Space C. The Space D. Dependent Variables. Other Modes of Convergence. Appendix. Some Notes on the Problems. Bibliographical Notes. Bibliography. Index.

12,859 citations

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20 Jun 1995TL;DR: A novel scheme for the detection of object boundaries based on active contours evolving in time according to intrinsic geometric measures of the image, allowing stable boundary detection when their gradients suffer from large variations, including gaps.

Abstract: A novel scheme for the detection of object boundaries is presented. The technique is based on active contours deforming according to intrinsic geometric measures of the image. The evolving contours naturally split and merge, allowing the simultaneous detection of several objects and both interior and exterior boundaries. The proposed approach is based on the relation between active contours and the computation of geodesics or minimal distance curves. The minimal distance curve lays in a Riemannian space whose metric as defined by the image content. This geodesic approach for object segmentation allows to connect classical "snakes" based on energy minimization and geometric active contours based on the theory of curve evolution. Previous models of geometric active contours are improved as showed by a number of examples. Formal results concerning existence, uniqueness, stability, and correctness of the evolution are presented as well. >

5,437 citations

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Microsoft

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, the authors compare the predictive accuracy of various methods in a set of representative problem domains, including correlation coefficients, vector-based similarity calculations, and statistical Bayesian methods.

Abstract: Collaborative filtering or recommender systems use a database about user preferences to predict additional topics or products a new user might like. In this paper we describe several algorithms designed for this task, including techniques based on correlation coefficients, vector-based similarity calculations, and statistical Bayesian methods. We compare the predictive accuracy of the various methods in a set of representative problem domains. We use two basic classes of evaluation metrics. The first characterizes accuracy over a set of individual predictions in terms of average absolute deviation. The second estimates the utility of a ranked list of suggested items. This metric uses an estimate of the probability that a user will see a recommendation in an ordered list. Experiments were run for datasets associated with 3 application areas, 4 experimental protocols, and the 2 evaluation metrics for the various algorithms. Results indicate that for a wide range of conditions, Bayesian networks with decision trees at each node and correlation methods outperform Bayesian-clustering and vector-similarity methods. Between correlation and Bayesian networks, the preferred method depends on the nature of the dataset, nature of the application (ranked versus one-by-one presentation), and the availability of votes with which to make predictions. Other considerations include the size of database, speed of predictions, and learning time.

4,883 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a geodesic approach based on active contours evolving in time according to intrinsic geometric measures of the image is presented. But this approach is not suitable for 3D object segmentation.

Abstract: A novel scheme for the detection of object boundaries is presented. The technique is based on active contours evolving in time according to intrinsic geometric measures of the image. The evolving contours naturally split and merge, allowing the simultaneous detection of several objects and both interior and exterior boundaries. The proposed approach is based on the relation between active contours and the computation of geodesics or minimal distance curves. The minimal distance curve lays in a Riemannian space whose metric is defined by the image content. This geodesic approach for object segmentation allows to connect classical “snakes” based on energy minimization and geometric active contours based on the theory of curve evolution. Previous models of geometric active contours are improved, allowing stable boundary detection when their gradients suffer from large variations, including gaps. Formal results concerning existence, uniqueness, stability, and correctness of the evolution are presented as well. The scheme was implemented using an efficient algorithm for curve evolution. Experimental results of applying the scheme to real images including objects with holes and medical data imagery demonstrate its power. The results may be extended to 3D object segmentation as well.

4,822 citations

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05 Dec 2005TL;DR: In this article, a Mahanalobis distance metric for k-NN classification is trained with the goal that the k-nearest neighbors always belong to the same class while examples from different classes are separated by a large margin.

Abstract: We show how to learn a Mahanalobis distance metric for k-nearest neighbor (kNN) classification by semidefinite programming. The metric is trained with the goal that the k-nearest neighbors always belong to the same class while examples from different classes are separated by a large margin. On seven data sets of varying size and difficulty, we find that metrics trained in this way lead to significant improvements in kNN classification—for example, achieving a test error rate of 1.3% on the MNIST handwritten digits. As in support vector machines (SVMs), the learning problem reduces to a convex optimization based on the hinge loss. Unlike learning in SVMs, however, our framework requires no modification or extension for problems in multiway (as opposed to binary) classification.

4,430 citations