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Microbial ecology

About: Microbial ecology is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2851 publications have been published within this topic receiving 162541 citations. The topic is also known as: environmental microbiology.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that bacterial communities of deep water masses of the North Atlantic and diffuse flow hydrothermal vents are one to two orders of magnitude more complex than previously reported for any microbial environment.
Abstract: The evolution of marine microbes over billions of years predicts that the composition of microbial communities should be much greater than the published estimates of a few thousand distinct kinds of microbes per liter of seawater. By adopting a massively parallel tag sequencing strategy, we show that bacterial communities of deep water masses of the North Atlantic and diffuse flow hydrothermal vents are one to two orders of magnitude more complex than previously reported for any microbial environment. A relatively small number of different populations dominate all samples, but thousands of low-abundance populations account for most of the observed phylogenetic diversity. This "rare biosphere" is very ancient and may represent a nearly inexhaustible source of genomic innovation. Members of the rare biosphere are highly divergent from each other and, at different times in earth's history, may have had a profound impact on shaping planetary processes.

3,535 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
02 May 1997-Science
TL;DR: Over three decades of molecular-phylogenetic studies, researchers have compiled an increasingly robust map of evolutionary diversification showing that the main diversity of life is microbial, distributed among three primary relatedness groups or domains: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya.
Abstract: Over three decades of molecular-phylogenetic studies, researchers have compiled an increasingly robust map of evolutionary diversification showing that the main diversity of life is microbial, distributed among three primary relatedness groups or domains: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya. The general properties of representatives of the three domains indicate that the earliest life was based on inorganic nutrition and that photosynthesis and use of organic compounds for carbon and energy metabolism came comparatively later. The application of molecular-phylogenetic methods to study natural microbial ecosystems without the traditional requirement for cultivation has resulted in the discovery of many unexpected evolutionary lineages; members of some of these lineages are only distantly related to known organisms but are sufficiently abundant that they are likely to have impact on the chemistry of the biosphere.

2,650 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comparison study of how microbes in the BIOTA make their living (NICHES) and the localization of climax communities in adults reveals a complex web of interactions between the host organism and the environment.
Abstract: CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 107 MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AS APPLIED TO THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT 108 MICROBIAL HABITATS IN THE MAMMALIAN GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT ........ 110 COMPOSITION AND LOCALIZATION OF CLIMAX COMMUNITIES IN ADULTS ...... 111 Some Comments on Methods 111 The Stomach (Esophagus) 112 The Small Bowel 115 The Large Bowel 116 The Feces 118 SUCCESSION IN BABIES 119 FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPOSITION OF THE MICROBIOTA 121 Forces Exerted by the Host and Its Diet and Environment 121 Forces Resulting from Activities of the Microbes Themselves 126 HOW MICROBES IN THE BIOTA MAKE THEIR LIVING (NICHES) 127 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 129

2,375 citations

Book
01 Jan 1970
TL;DR: Biology of microorganisms, Biology of micro organisms, مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و اصاع رسانی, کδاوρزی
Abstract: Introduction - an overview of microbiology and cell biology cell chemistry cell biology metabolism, biosynthesis and nutrition macromolecules and molecular genetics viruses microbial genetics genetic engineering and biotechnology growth and its control industrial microbiology host-parasite relationships immunology and immunity clinical and diagnostic mibrobiology epidemiology and public health microbiology major microbial diseases metabolic diversity among the microorganisms microbial ecology molecular systematics and microbial evolution the bacteria archaea eukarya - eukaryotic microorganisms

2,240 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Reassembly of multiple genomes has provided insight into energy and nutrient cycling within the community, genome structure, gene function, population genetics and microheterogeneity, and lateral gene transfer among members of an uncultured community.
Abstract: Metagenomics (also referred to as environmental and community genomics) is the genomic analysis of microorganisms by direct extraction and cloning of DNA from an assemblage of microorganisms. The development of metagenomics stemmed from the ineluctable evidence that as-yet-uncultured microorganisms represent the vast majority of organisms in most environments on earth. This evidence was derived from analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified directly from the environment, an approach that avoided the bias imposed by culturing and led to the discovery of vast new lineages of microbial life. Although the portrait of the microbial world was revolutionized by analysis of 16S rRNA genes, such studies yielded only a phylogenetic description of community membership, providing little insight into the genetics, physiology, and biochemistry of the members. Metagenomics provides a second tier of technical innovation that facilitates study of the physiology and ecology of environmental microorganisms. Novel genes and gene products discovered through metagenomics include the first bacteriorhodopsin of bacterial origin; novel small molecules with antimicrobial activity; and new members of families of known proteins, such as an Na+(Li+)/H+ antiporter, RecA, DNA polymerase, and antibiotic resistance determinants. Reassembly of multiple genomes has provided insight into energy and nutrient cycling within the community, genome structure, gene function, population genetics and microheterogeneity, and lateral gene transfer among members of an uncultured community. The application of metagenomic sequence information will facilitate the design of better culturing strategies to link genomic analysis with pure culture studies.

2,224 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023135
2022305
2021157
2020157
2019152
2018177