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Microbiome

About: Microbiome is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 17203 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 690603 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE05414
21 Dec 2006-Nature
Abstract: The worldwide obesity epidemic is stimulating efforts to identify host and environmental factors that affect energy balance. Comparisons of the distal gut microbiota of genetically obese mice and their lean littermates, as well as those of obese and lean human volunteers have revealed that obesity is associated with changes in the relative abundance of the two dominant bacterial divisions, the Bacteroidetes and the Firmicutes. Here we demonstrate through metagenomic and biochemical analyses that these changes affect the metabolic potential of the mouse gut microbiota. Our results indicate that the obese microbiome has an increased capacity to harvest energy from the diet. Furthermore, this trait is transmissible: colonization of germ-free mice with an 'obese microbiota' results in a significantly greater increase in total body fat than colonization with a 'lean microbiota'. These results identify the gut microbiota as an additional contributing factor to the pathophysiology of obesity.

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Topics: Gut flora (58%), Microbiome (57%), Enterotype (52%) ...read more

8,648 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE11234
Curtis Huttenhower1, Curtis Huttenhower2, Dirk Gevers1, Rob Knight3  +250 moreInstitutions (42)
14 Jun 2012-Nature
Abstract: The Human Microbiome Project Consortium reports the first results of their analysis of microbial communities from distinct, clinically relevant body habitats in a human cohort; the insights into the microbial communities of a healthy population lay foundations for future exploration of the epidemiology, ecology and translational applications of the human microbiome.

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Topics: Human Microbiome Project (72%), Oral Microbiome (65%), Microbiome (64%) ...read more

6,805 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE07540
22 Jan 2009-Nature
Abstract: The human distal gut harbours a vast ensemble of microbes (the microbiota) that provide important metabolic capabilities, including the ability to extract energy from otherwise indigestible dietary polysaccharides. Studies of a few unrelated, healthy adults have revealed substantial diversity in their gut communities, as measured by sequencing 16S rRNA genes, yet how this diversity relates to function and to the rest of the genes in the collective genomes of the microbiota (the gut microbiome) remains obscure. Studies of lean and obese mice suggest that the gut microbiota affects energy balance by influencing the efficiency of calorie harvest from the diet, and how this harvested energy is used and stored. Here we characterize the faecal microbial communities of adult female monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs concordant for leanness or obesity, and their mothers, to address how host genotype, environmental exposure and host adiposity influence the gut microbiome. Analysis of 154 individuals yielded 9,920 near full-length and 1,937,461 partial bacterial 16S rRNA sequences, plus 2.14 gigabases from their microbiomes. The results reveal that the human gut microbiome is shared among family members, but that each person's gut microbial community varies in the specific bacterial lineages present, with a comparable degree of co-variation between adult monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. However, there was a wide array of shared microbial genes among sampled individuals, comprising an extensive, identifiable 'core microbiome' at the gene, rather than at the organismal lineage, level. Obesity is associated with phylum-level changes in the microbiota, reduced bacterial diversity and altered representation of bacterial genes and metabolic pathways. These results demonstrate that a diversity of organismal assemblages can nonetheless yield a core microbiome at a functional level, and that deviations from this core are associated with different physiological states (obese compared with lean).

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Topics: Microbiome (64%), Human Microbiome Project (63%), Human microbiome (58%) ...read more

6,178 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE12820
23 Jan 2014-Nature
Abstract: Long-term dietary intake influences the structure and activity of the trillions of microorganisms residing in the human gut, but it remains unclear how rapidly and reproducibly the human gut microbiome responds to short-term macronutrient change. Here we show that the short-term consumption of diets composed entirely of animal or plant products alters microbial community structure and overwhelms inter-individual differences in microbial gene expression. The animal-based diet increased the abundance of bile-tolerant microorganisms (Alistipes, Bilophila and Bacteroides) and decreased the levels of Firmicutes that metabolize dietary plant polysaccharides (Roseburia, Eubacterium rectale and Ruminococcus bromii). Microbial activity mirrored differences between herbivorous and carnivorous mammals, reflecting trade-offs between carbohydrate and protein fermentation. Foodborne microbes from both diets transiently colonized the gut, including bacteria, fungi and even viruses. Finally, increases in the abundance and activity of Bilophila wadsworthia on the animal-based diet support a link between dietary fat, bile acids and the outgrowth of microorganisms capable of triggering inflammatory bowel disease. In concert, these results demonstrate that the gut microbiome can rapidly respond to altered diet, potentially facilitating the diversity of human dietary lifestyles.

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Topics: Microbiome (58%), Enterotype (55%), Gastrointestinal Microbiome (53%) ...read more

5,438 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE11053
Tanya Yatsunenko1, Federico E. Rey1, Mark J. Manary1, Mark J. Manary2  +19 moreInstitutions (7)
14 Jun 2012-Nature
Abstract: Gut microbial communities represent one source of human genetic and metabolic diversity. To examine how gut microbiomes differ among human populations, here we characterize bacterial species in fecal samples from 531 individuals, plus the gene content of 110 of them. The cohort encompassed healthy children and adults from the Amazonas of Venezuela, rural Malawi and US metropolitan areas and included mono- and dizygotic twins. Shared features of the functional maturation of the gut microbiome were identified during the first three years of life in all three populations, including age-associated changes in the genes involved in vitamin biosynthesis and metabolism. Pronounced differences in bacterial assemblages and functional gene repertoires were noted between US residents and those in the other two countries. These distinctive features are evident in early infancy as well as adulthood. Our findings underscore the need to consider the microbiome when evaluating human development, nutritional needs, physiological variations and the impact of westernization.

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Topics: Microbiome (59%), Human microbiome (56%), Enterotype (55%) ...read more

4,955 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202251
20213,671
20203,072
20192,616
20181,965
20171,687

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Rob Knight

224 papers, 66.2K citations

Curtis Huttenhower

83 papers, 24.9K citations

John F. Cryan

58 papers, 6.8K citations

Martin J. Blaser

52 papers, 7.8K citations

Ramnik J. Xavier

52 papers, 10.5K citations

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