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About: Microcephaly is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 4622 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 122246 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Microcephalus & microencephaly. more


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-017-17765-5
08 Jan 2018-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently caused a pandemic disease, and many cases of ZIKV infection in pregnant women resulted in abortion, stillbirth, deaths and congenital defects including microcephaly, which now has been proposed as ZIKV congenital syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the in situ immune response profile and mechanisms of neuronal cell damage in fatal Zika microcephaly cases. Brain tissue samples were collected from 15 cases, including 10 microcephalic ZIKV-positive neonates with fatal outcome and five neonatal control flavivirus-negative neonates that died due to other causes, but with preserved central nervous system (CNS) architecture. In microcephaly cases, the histopathological features of the tissue samples were characterized in three CNS areas (meninges, perivascular space, and parenchyma). The changes found were mainly calcification, necrosis, neuronophagy, gliosis, microglial nodules, and inflammatory infiltration of mononuclear cells. The in situ immune response against ZIKV in the CNS of newborns is complex. Despite the predominant expression of Th2 cytokines, other cytokines such as Th1, Th17, Treg, Th9, and Th22 are involved to a lesser extent, but are still likely to participate in the immunopathogenic mechanisms of neural disease in fatal cases of microcephaly caused by ZIKV. more

Topics: Microcephaly (57%), Zika virus (53%)

3,305 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1600651
Abstract: Summary A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reversetranscriptase–polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain. more

Topics: Zika virus disease (58%), Microcephaly (56%), Micrencephaly (56%) more

2,166 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMSR1604338
Abstract: Summary The Zika virus has spread rapidly in the Americas since its first identification in Brazil in early 2015. Prenatal Zika virus infection has been linked to adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes, most notably microcephaly and other serious brain anomalies. To determine whether Zika virus infection during pregnancy causes these adverse outcomes, we evaluated available data using criteria that have been proposed for the assessment of potential teratogens. On the basis of this review, we conclude that a causal relationship exists between prenatal Zika virus infection and microcephaly and other serious brain anomalies. Evidence that was used to support this causal relationship included Zika virus infection at times during prenatal development that were consistent with the defects observed; a specific, rare phenotype involving microcephaly and associated brain anomalies in fetuses or infants with presumed or confirmed congenital Zika virus infection; and data that strongly support biologic plausibility, including the identification of Zika virus in the brain tissue of affected fetuses and infants. Given the recognition of this causal relationship, we need to intensify our efforts toward the prevention of adverse outcomes caused by congenital Zika virus infection. However, many questions that are critical to our prevention efforts remain, including the spectrum of defects caused by prenatal Zika virus infection, the degree of relative and absolute risks of adverse outcomes among fetuses whose mothers were infected at different times during pregnancy, and factors that might affect a woman’s risk of adverse pregnancy or birth outcomes. Addressing these questions will improve our ability to reduce the burden of the effects of Zika virus infection during pregnancy. more

Topics: Zika virus disease (74%), Zika virus (72%), Microcephaly (55%)

1,534 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ANA.410140412
Abstract: Thirty-five patients, exclusively girls, from three countries had a uniform and striking progressive encephalopathy. After normal general and psychomotor development up to the age of 7 to 18 months, developmental stagnation occurred, followed by rapid deterioration of higher brain functions. Within one-and-a-half years this deterioration led to severe dementia, autism, loss of purposeful use of the hands, jerky truncal ataxia, and acquired microcephaly. The destructive stage was followed by apparent stability lasting through decades. Additional insidious neurological abnormalities supervened, mainly spastic parapareses, vasomotor disturbances of the lower limbs, and epilepsy. Prior extensive laboratory investigations have not revealed the cause. The condition is similar to a virtually overlooked syndrome described by Rett in the German literature. The exclusive involvement of females, correlated with findings in family data analyses, suggests a dominant mutation on one X chromosome that results in affected girls and nonviable male hemizygous conceptuses. more

Topics: Rett syndrome (59%), Ataxia (55%), Atypical Rett syndrome (54%) more

1,335 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE18296
11 May 2016-Nature
Abstract: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae) and was first described in 1947 in Uganda following blood analyses of sentinel Rhesus monkeys. Until the twentieth century, the African and Asian lineages of the virus did not cause meaningful infections in humans. However, in 2007, vectored by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, ZIKV caused the first noteworthy epidemic on the Yap Island in Micronesia. Patients experienced fever, skin rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis. From 2013 to 2015, the Asian lineage of the virus caused further massive outbreaks in New Caledonia and French Polynesia. In 2013, ZIKV reached Brazil, later spreading to other countries in South and Central America. In Brazil, the virus has been linked to congenital malformations, including microcephaly and other severe neurological diseases, such as Guillain-Barre syndrome. Despite clinical evidence, direct experimental proof showing that the Brazilian ZIKV (ZIKV(BR)) strain causes birth defects remains absent. Here we demonstrate that ZIKV(BR) infects fetuses, causing intrauterine growth restriction, including signs of microcephaly, in mice. Moreover, the virus infects human cortical progenitor cells, leading to an increase in cell death. We also report that the infection of human brain organoids results in a reduction of proliferative zones and disrupted cortical layers. These results indicate that ZIKV(BR) crosses the placenta and causes microcephaly by targeting cortical progenitor cells, inducing cell death by apoptosis and autophagy, and impairing neurodevelopment. Our data reinforce the growing body of evidence linking the ZIKV(BR) outbreak to the alarming number of cases of congenital brain malformations. Our model can be used to determine the efficiency of therapeutic approaches to counteracting the harmful impact of ZIKV(BR) in human neurodevelopment. more

Topics: Zika virus (57%), Microcephaly (50%)

948 Citations

No. of papers in the topic in previous years

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

William B. Dobyns

38 papers, 3.4K citations

Fowzan S. Alkuraya

27 papers, 748 citations

Alain Verloes

25 papers, 1.1K citations

Christopher A. Walsh

24 papers, 1.8K citations

Ghada M H Abdel-Salam

22 papers, 551 citations

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