About: Microelectronics is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 7210 publications have been published within this topic receiving 152133 citations.
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TL;DR: A review of the literature on thermal transport in nanoscale devices can be found in this article, where the authors highlight the recent developments in experiment, theory and computation that have occurred in the past ten years and summarizes the present status of the field.
Abstract: Rapid progress in the synthesis and processing of materials with structure on nanometer length scales has created a demand for greater scientific understanding of thermal transport in nanoscale devices, individual nanostructures, and nanostructured materials. This review emphasizes developments in experiment, theory, and computation that have occurred in the past ten years and summarizes the present status of the field. Interfaces between materials become increasingly important on small length scales. The thermal conductance of many solid–solid interfaces have been studied experimentally but the range of observed interface properties is much smaller than predicted by simple theory. Classical molecular dynamics simulations are emerging as a powerful tool for calculations of thermal conductance and phonon scattering, and may provide for a lively interplay of experiment and theory in the near term. Fundamental issues remain concerning the correct definitions of temperature in nonequilibrium nanoscale systems. Modern Si microelectronics are now firmly in the nanoscale regime—experiments have demonstrated that the close proximity of interfaces and the extremely small volume of heat dissipation strongly modifies thermal transport, thereby aggravating problems of thermal management. Microelectronic devices are too large to yield to atomic-level simulation in the foreseeable future and, therefore, calculations of thermal transport must rely on solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation; microscopic phonon scattering rates needed for predictive models are, even for Si, poorly known. Low-dimensional nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes, are predicted to have novel transport properties; the first quantitative experiments of the thermal conductivity of nanotubes have recently been achieved using microfabricated measurement systems. Nanoscale porosity decreases the permittivity of amorphous dielectrics but porosity also strongly decreases the thermal conductivity. The promise of improved thermoelectric materials and problems of thermal management of optoelectronic devices have stimulated extensive studies of semiconductor superlattices; agreement between experiment and theory is generally poor. Advances in measurement methods, e.g., the 3ω method, time-domain thermoreflectance, sources of coherent phonons, microfabricated test structures, and the scanning thermal microscope, are enabling new capabilities for nanoscale thermal metrology.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigate the feasibility of achieving electrically driven lasing from individual nanowires and show that these structures can function as Fabry-Perot optical cavities with mode spacing inversely related to the nanowire length.
Abstract: Electrically driven semiconductor lasers are used in technologies ranging from telecommunications and information storage to medical diagnostics and therapeutics. The success of this class of lasers is due in part to well-developed planar semiconductor growth and processing, which enables reproducible fabrication of integrated, electrically driven devices. Yet this approach to device fabrication is also costly and difficult to integrate directly with other technologies such as silicon microelectronics. To overcome these issues for future applications, there has been considerable interest in using organic molecules, polymers, and inorganic nanostructures for lasers, because these materials can be fashioned into devices by chemical processing. Indeed, amplified stimulated emission and lasing have been reported for optically pumped organic systems and, more recently, inorganic nanocrystals and nanowires. However, electrically driven lasing, which is required in most applications, has met with several difficulties in organic systems, and has not been addressed for assembled nanocrystals or nanowires. Here we investigate the feasibility of achieving electrically driven lasing from individual nanowires. Optical and electrical measurements made on single-crystal cadmium sulphide nanowires show that these structures can function as Fabry-Perot optical cavities with mode spacing inversely related to the nanowire length. Investigations of optical and electrical pumping further indicate a threshold for lasing as characterized by optical modes with instrument-limited linewidths. Electrically driven nanowire lasers, which might be assembled in arrays capable of emitting a wide range of colours, could improve existing applications and suggest new opportunities.
TL;DR: Electro-optic modulators are one of the most critical components in optoelectronic integration, and decreasing their size may enable novel chip architectures, and here a high-speed electro-optical modulator in compact silicon structures is experimentally demonstrated.
Abstract: Metal interconnections are expected to become the limiting factor for the performance of electronic systems as transistors continue to shrink in size. Replacing them by optical interconnections, at different levels ranging from rack-to-rack down to chip-to-chip and intra-chip interconnections, could provide the low power dissipation, low latencies and high bandwidths that are needed. The implementation of optical interconnections relies on the development of micro-optical devices that are integrated with the microelectronics on chips. Recent demonstrations of silicon low-loss waveguides, light emitters, amplifiers and lasers approach this goal, but a small silicon electro-optic modulator with a size small enough for chip-scale integration has not yet been demonstrated. Here we experimentally demonstrate a high-speed electro-optical modulator in compact silicon structures. The modulator is based on a resonant light-confining structure that enhances the sensitivity of light to small changes in refractive index of the silicon and also enables high-speed operation. The modulator is 12 micrometres in diameter, three orders of magnitude smaller than previously demonstrated. Electro-optic modulators are one of the most critical components in optoelectronic integration, and decreasing their size may enable novel chip architectures.
TL;DR: The experimental demonstration of fast all-optical switching on silicon using highly light-confining structures to enhance the sensitivity of light to small changes in refractive index and confirm the recent theoretical prediction of efficient optical switching in silicon using resonant structures.
Abstract: Photonic circuits, in which beams of light redirect the flow of other beams of light, are a long-standing goal for developing highly integrated optical communication components1,2,3. Furthermore, it is highly desirable to use silicon—the dominant material in the microelectronic industry—as the platform for such circuits. Photonic structures that bend, split, couple and filter light have recently been demonstrated in silicon4,5, but the flow of light in these structures is predetermined and cannot be readily modulated during operation. All-optical switches and modulators have been demonstrated with III–V compound semiconductors6,7, but achieving the same in silicon is challenging owing to its relatively weak nonlinear optical properties. Indeed, all-optical switching in silicon has only been achieved by using extremely high powers8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15 in large or non-planar structures, where the modulated light is propagating out-of-plane. Such high powers, large dimensions and non-planar geometries are inappropriate for effective on-chip integration. Here we present the experimental demonstration of fast all-optical switching on silicon using highly light-confining structures to enhance the sensitivity of light to small changes in refractive index. The transmission of the structure can be modulated by up to 94% in less than 500 ps using light pulses with energies as low as 25 pJ. These results confirm the recent theoretical prediction16 of efficient optical switching in silicon using resonant structures.
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