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About: Microglia is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 17888 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1143860 citation(s). The topic is also known as: microglial cell & microgliocyte. more


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0166-2236(96)10049-7
Georg W. Kreutzberg1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The most characteristic feature of microglial cells is their rapid activation in response to even minor pathological changes in the CNS. Microglia activation is a key factor in the defence of the neural parenchyma against infectious diseases, inflammation, trauma, ischaemia, brain tumours and neurodegeneration. Microglia activation occurs as a graded response in vivo. The transformation of microglia into potentially cytotoxic cells is under strict control and occurs mainly in response to neuronal or terminal degeneration, or both. Activated microglia are mainly scavenger cells but also perform various other functions in tissue repair and neural regeneration. They form a network of immune alert resident macrophages with a capacity for immune surveillance and control. Activated microglia can destroy invading micro-organisms, remove potentially deleterious debris, promote tissue repair by secreting growth factors and thus facilitate the return to tissue homeostasis. An understanding of intercellular signalling pathways for microglia proliferation and activation could form a rational basis for targeted intervention on glial reactions to injuries in the CNS. Trends Neurosci. (1996) 19, 312–318 more

Topics: Neuroinflammation (64%), Neuroglia (58%), Tissue homeostasis (56%) more

4,212 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1110647
27 May 2005-Science
Abstract: Microglial cells represent the immune system of the mammalian brain and therefore are critically involved in various injuries and diseases. Little is known about their role in the healthy brain and their immediate reaction to brain damage. By using in vivo two-photon imaging in neocortex, we found that microglial cells are highly active in their presumed resting state, continually surveying their microenvironment with extremely motile processes and protrusions. Furthermore, blood-brain barrier disruption provoked immediate and focal activation of microglia, switching their behavior from patroling to shielding of the injured site. Microglia thus are busy and vigilant housekeepers in the adult brain. more

Topics: Brain damage (55%), Neuroglia (53%), Resting state fMRI (52%) more

3,988 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1194637
05 Nov 2010-Science
Abstract: Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system and are associated with the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative and brain inflammatory diseases; however, the origin of adult microglia remains controversial. We show that postnatal hematopoietic progenitors do not significantly contribute to microglia homeostasis in the adult brain. In contrast to many macrophage populations, we show that microglia develop in mice that lack colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) but are absent in CSF-1 receptor-deficient mice. In vivo lineage tracing studies established that adult microglia derive from primitive myeloid progenitors that arise before embryonic day 8. These results identify microglia as an ontogenically distinct population in the mononuclear phagocyte system and have implications for the use of embryonically derived microglial progenitors for the treatment of various brain disorders. more

Topics: Neuroglia (58%), Microglia (56%), Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (52%) more

3,229 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NN1997
Abstract: Microglial cells constitute the resident macrophage population of the CNS. Recent in vivo studies have shown that microglia carry out active tissue scanning, which challenges the traditional notion of 'resting' microglia in the normal brain. Transformation of microglia to reactive states in response to pathology has been known for decades as microglial activation, but seems to be more diverse and dynamic than ever anticipated—in both transcriptional and nontranscriptional features and functional consequences. This may help to explain why engagement of microglia can be either neuroprotective or neurotoxic, resulting in containment or aggravation of disease progression. Moreover, little is known about the heterogeneity of microglial responses in different pathologic contexts that results from regional adaptations or from the progression of a disease. In this review, we focus on several key observations that illustrate the multi-faceted activities of microglia in the normal and pathologic brain. more

Topics: Microglia (52%)

2,925 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NN1472
Abstract: Parenchymal microglia are the principal immune cells of the brain. Time-lapse two-photon imaging of GFP-labeled microglia demonstrates that the fine termini of microglial processes are highly dynamic in the intact mouse cortex. Upon traumatic brain injury, microglial processes rapidly and autonomously converge on the site of injury without cell body movement, establishing a potential barrier between the healthy and injured tissue. This rapid chemotactic response can be mimicked by local injection of ATP and can be inhibited by the ATP-hydrolyzing enzyme apyrase or by blockers of G protein-coupled purinergic receptors and connexin channels, which are highly expressed in astrocytes. The baseline motility of microglial processes is also reduced significantly in the presence of apyrase and connexin channel inhibitors. Thus, extracellular ATP regulates microglial branch dynamics in the intact brain, and its release from the damaged tissue and surrounding astrocytes mediates a rapid microglial response towards injury. more

Topics: Purinergic receptor (55%), Apyrase (55%), Astrocyte (53%) more

2,866 Citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Eng-Ang Ling

82 papers, 4.6K citations

Marco Prinz

77 papers, 14.9K citations

Helmut Kettenmann

75 papers, 13.6K citations

Patrick L. McGeer

70 papers, 11.2K citations

Jack P. Antel

67 papers, 8.5K citations

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