About: Micronucleus test is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 7725 publications have been published within this topic receiving 214935 citations. The topic is also known as: micronucleus tests.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In its current basic form the CBMN assay can provide the following measures of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity: chromosome breakage, chromosome loss, chromosome rearrangement, cell division inhibition, necrosis and apoptosis.
Abstract: The study of DNA damage at the chromosome level is an essential part of genetic toxicology because chromosomal mutation is an important event in carcinogenesis. The micronucleus assays have emerged as one of the preferred methods for assessing chromosome damage because they enable both chromosome loss and chromosome breakage to be measured reliably. Because micronuclei can only be expressed in cells that complete nuclear division a special method was developed that identifies such cells by their binucleate appearance when blocked from performing cytokinesis by cytochalasin-B (Cyt-B), a microfilament-assembly inhibitor. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay allows better precision because the data obtained are not confounded by altered cell division kinetics caused by cytotoxicity of agents tested or sub-optimal cell culture conditions. The method is now applied to various cell types for population monitoring of genetic damage, screening of chemicals for genotoxic potential and for specific purposes such as the prediction of the radiosensitivity of tumours and the inter-individual variation in radiosensitivity. In its current basic form the CBMN assay can provide, using simple morphological criteria, the following measures of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity: chromosome breakage, chromosome loss, chromosome rearrangement (nucleoplasmic bridges), cell division inhibition, necrosis and apoptosis. The cytosine-arabinoside modification of the CBMN assay allows for measurement of excision repairable lesions. The use of molecular probes enables chromosome loss to be distinguished from chromosome breakage and importantly non-disjunction in non-micronucleated binucleated cells can be efficiently measured. The in vitro CBMN technique, therefore, provides multiple and complementary measures of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity which can be achieved with relative ease within one system. The basic principles and methods (including detailed scoring criteria for all the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity end-points) of the CBMN assay are described and areas for future development identified.
TL;DR: The cytokinesis-block method appears to be the procedure of choice for quantitating micronuclei in lymphocytes and was of no value for measuring pre-existing chromosomal damage present in vivo.
Abstract: The micronucleus technique has been proposed as a method for measurement of chromosomal damage in mitogen-stimulated human lymphocytes. Micronuclei require one cell division to be expressed and, consequently, the conventional micronucleus technique is very imprecise since the cells which have undergone only one division, and the micronuclei in them, cannot be identified separately from the total population of lymphocytes. To overcome this problem, two methods were developed to identify cells which have undergone their first mitosis. Using an autoradiographic technique, lymphocytes were pulse-labelled with [3H]thymidine at 48 h of culture, allowed to proceed through mitosis, identified by autoradiography between 72 and 84 h and micronuclei were scored in them. It was not possible to select a concentration of radiolabel which did not itself produce micronuclei and consequently the method was of no value for measuring pre-existing chromosomal damage present in vivo. However, it was capable of quantitating micronuclei produced by irradiation of lymphocytes in vitro. In the second method, cytokinesis was blocked using cytochalasin B. Micronuclei were scored in cytokinesis-blocked cells. These were easily recognisable owing to their binucleate appearance and a large number could be accumulated by adding 3.0 micrograms/ml cytochalasin B at 44 h and scoring at 72 h. Cytochalasin B did not itself produce micronuclei. The cytokinesis-block method was simple to perform; the 'in vivo' micronucleus frequency in normal individuals was 4.4 +/- 2.6 micronuclei/500 cytokinesis-blocked cells; and for lymphocytes irradiated in vitro there was a linear relationship between dose of radiation and number of induced micronuclei. The cytokinesis-block method appears to be the procedure of choice for quantitating micronuclei in lymphocytes.
TL;DR: The cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay is a comprehensive system for measuring DNA damage, cytostasis and cytotoxicity and is being applied successfully for biomonitoring of in vivo genotoxin exposure, in vitro genotoxicity testing and in diverse research fields such as nutrigenomics and pharmacogenomics as a predictor of normal tissue and tumor radiation sensitivity and cancer risk.
Abstract: The cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay is a comprehensive system for measuring DNA damage, cytostasis and cytotoxicity. DNA damage events are scored specifically in once-divided binucleated (BN) cells and include (a) micronuclei (MNi), a biomarker of chromosome breakage and/or whole chromosome loss, (b) nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs), a biomarker of DNA misrepair and/or telomere end-fusions, and (c) nuclear buds (NBUDs), a biomarker of elimination of amplified DNA and/or DNA repair complexes. Cytostatic effects are measured via the proportion of mono-, bi- and multinucleated cells and cytotoxicity via necrotic and/or apoptotic cell ratios. Further information regarding mechanisms leading to MNi, NPBs and NBUDs formation is obtained using centromere and/or telomere probes. The assay is being applied successfully for biomonitoring of in vivo genotoxin exposure, in vitro genotoxicity testing and in diverse research fields such as nutrigenomics and pharmacogenomics as well as a predictor of normal tissue and tumor radiation sensitivity and cancer risk. The procedure can take up to 5 days to complete.
TL;DR: Criteria for scoring micron nuclei and nucleoplasmic bridges in binucleated cells in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay for isolated human lymphocyte cultures are described in detail and will assist in the development of a procedure for calibrating scorers and laboratories so that results from different laboratories may be more comparable in the future.
Abstract: Criteria for scoring micronuclei and nucleoplasmic bridges in binucleated cells in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay for isolated human lymphocyte cultures are described in detail. Morphological characteristics of mononucleated cells, binucleated cells, and multinucleated cells as well as necrotic and apoptotic cells and nuclear buds are also described. These criteria are illustrated by a series of schematic diagrams as well as a comprehensive set of colour photographs that are of practical assistance during the scoring of slides. These scoring criteria, diagrams and photographs have been used in a HUman MicronNucleus (HUMN) project inter-laboratory slide-scoring exercise to evaluate the extent of variability that can be attributable to individual scorers and individual laboratories when measuring the frequency of micronuclei and nucleoplasmic bridges in binucleated cells as well as the nuclear division index. The results of the latter study are described in an accompanying paper. It is expected that these scoring criteria will assist in the development of a procedure for calibrating scorers and laboratories so that results from different laboratories for the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay may be more comparable in the future.
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