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Mimosine

About: Mimosine is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 496 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 8812 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Leucenine & Leucaenine.

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Journal ArticleDOI
R. J. Jones1, R G Megarrity1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: In the absence of any disease in the animals, clearance has been given for the wider use of these cultures in areas where Leucaena is grown, and limited evidence suggests that the leucaena toxicity problem can be solved by the use ofThese introduced bacteria.

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Abstract: Cattle and goats in Australia lack the ability to totally degrade 3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridone, also known as 3,4-dihydroxy pyridine (3,4 DHP), the ruminal metabolite of mimosine, a toxic aminoacid present in the leguminous shrub Leucaena leucocephala. Ruminants in Hawaii have this capacity due to the presence of micro-organisms able to rapidly degrade the DHP. A mixed bacterial population capable of rapidly degrading DHP in vitro was isolated from a goat on the island of Maui. Cultures were grown anaerobically, without added sugars, in Medium 98-5 containing DHP. Cultures at a dilution of 10(-12) from the original rumen fluid were introduced into Townsville and further sub-cultured and multiplied in vitro in strict isolation at the Oonoonba Veterinary Laboratory, Townsville. Infusion of the culture into a goat and a steer fed a 100% leucaena diet resulted in cessation of DHP excretion in the urine. After 60 days the serum thyroxine levels and thyroid size were normal and there were no clinical signs of disease. The ability of the rumen fluid to degrade DHP in vitro showed that the bacteria had become established in the rumen. In the absence of any disease in the animals, clearance has been given for the wider use of these cultures in areas where leucaena is grown. The limited evidence suggests that the leucaena toxicity problem can be solved by the use of these introduced bacteria.

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210 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new genus and species designation is proposed, Synergistes jonesii, for rumen bacteria that are able to degrade the toxic compound, 3-hydroxy-4(lH)-pyridone (3,4 DHP), that is produced in the rumen from mimosine.

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Abstract: Summary This study was conducted to identify and characterize rumen bacteria that are able to degrade the toxic compound, 3-hydroxy-4(lH)-pyridone (3,4 DHP), that is produced in the rumen from mimosine. Mimosine is a non-protein amino acid that is found in leaves and seeds of Leucaena leucocephala , a leguminous tree used as a forage crop for ruminants in the tropics, and degradation of 3,4 DHP by ruminal microbes is critical for protection of animals from leucaena toxicity. Microbes with this capacity are, however, not ubiquitous and microbial populations in the rumens of animals in some parts of the world are unable to metabolize 3,4 DHP. Four strains of obligately anaerobic, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that degrade 3,4 DHP were isolated from rumen contents from a goat in Hawaii. The isolates do not ferment carbohydrates, but are able to use both 3,4 DHP and its isomer, 3-hydroxy-2(lH)-pyridone (2,3 DHP), as well as arginine and histidine as substrates for growth. Comparisons of the 16S rRNA sequence from one of these isolates with sequences from a widely diverse group of bacteria agree with other information indicating that these isolates do not fit into any existing taxon. Thus, we are hereby proposing a new genus and species designation, Synergistes jonesii , for these organisms.

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196 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Marc Lalande1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Results indicate that mimosine inhibits cell cycle traverse in the late G1 phase prior to the onset of DNA synthesis and identifies a previously undefined reversible cell cycle arrest point.

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Abstract: The effects of two different cell cycle inhibitors on the proliferation of human lymphoblastoid cells have been analyzed by flow cytometric techniques. Mimosine, a plant amino acid, reversibly blocks the cell cycle at a point which occurs roughly 2 h before the arrest mediated by aphidicolin, an inhibitor of DNA polymerase α activity, which defines the G1/S phase boundary. The levels of thymidine kinase mRNA, which increase at the onset of S phase, are higher in cells blocked with aphidicolin than in cells treated with mimosine whereas the opposite results are obtained in the case of p53 mRNA levels, which are known to be maximal in the late G1 phase. These results indicate that mimosine inhibits cell cycle traverse in the late G1 phase prior to the onset of DNA synthesis and identifies a previously undefined reversible cell cycle arrest point.

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191 citations


Journal Article
01 Dec 1992-Cancer Research
TL;DR: The usefulness of quercetin in studies of the regulation of late G1 phase is suggested, suggesting the possibility that the M(r) 60,000 protein induces DNA synthesis after the cell is released from a quERCetin block.

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Abstract: The effect of quercetin, a flavonoid found in many plants, on the proliferation of human leukemic T-cells was analyzed. Quercetin reversibly blocked the cell cycle at a point 3-6 h before the start of DNA synthesis. Expression of the growth-related genes histone H4, cyclin A and B, and p34cdc2 was suppressed in cells blocked with quercetin. Comparison of the quercetin arrest points with those of the cell cycle inhibitors aphidicolin and mimosine revealed a temporal order of arrest points in G1 of quercetin, mimosine, and aphidicolin. Mimosine and aphidicolin did not inhibit the expression of cyclin A or p34cdc2, whereas all three reagents inhibited expression of cyclin B. Low concentrations of the protein inhibitor cycloheximide inhibited release of the quercetin but not the mimosine or aphidicolin block. A [35S]methionine-labeled M(r) 60,000 protein disappeared in quercetin-treated cells and was rapidly synthesized after removal of quercetin, suggesting the possibility that the M(r) 60,000 protein induces DNA synthesis after the cell is released from a quercetin block. These results suggest the usefulness of quercetin in studies of the regulation of late G1 phase.

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188 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Torsten Krude1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: It is shown that 0.5 mM mimosine can induce a cell cycle arrest of human somatic cells in late G1 phase, before establishment of active DNA replication forks, which can be exploited for studying the initiation of human DNA replication in vitro.

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Abstract: The synchronization effects of the plant amino acid mimosine on proliferating higher eukaryotic cells are still controversial. Here, I show that 0.5 mM mimosine can induce a cell cycle arrest of human somatic cells in late G1 phase, before establishment of active DNA replication forks. The DNA content of nuclei isolated from mimosine-treated cells was determined by flow cytometry. The presence or absence of DNA replication forks in these isolated nuclei was then detected by DNA replication run-on assays in vitro. Treatment of asynchronously proliferating HeLa or EJ30 cells for 24 h with 0.5 mM mimosine resulted in a population synchronized in late G1 phase. S phase entry was inhibited by 0.5 mM mimosine in cells released from a block in mitosis or from quiescence. When added to early S phase cells, 0.5 mM mimosine did not prevent S phase transit, but delayed progression through late stages of S phase after a lag of 4 h, eventually resulting in a G1 phase population by preventing entry into the subsequent S phase. In contrast, lower concentrations of mimosine (0.1-0.2 mM) failed to prevent S phase entry, resulting in cells containing active DNA replication foci. The G1 phase arrest by 0.5 mM mimosine was reversible upon mimosine withdrawal. This synchronization protocol using 0.5 mM mimosine can be exploited for studying the initiation of human DNA replication in vitro.

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170 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20218
202010
201913
20188
20178
201611

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Dulal Borthakur

25 papers, 348 citations

H. Max Shelton

9 papers, 53 citations

Masakazu Fukuta

8 papers, 149 citations

Scott A. Dalzell

7 papers, 61 citations

Fujiya Hongo

6 papers, 35 citations