Minimum bactericidal concentration
About: Minimum bactericidal concentration is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4461 publications have been published within this topic receiving 100857 citations. The topic is also known as: MBC.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The aim of broth and agar dilution methods is to determine the lowest concentration of the assayed antimicrobial agent (minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC) that, under defined test conditions, inhibits the visible growth of the bacterium being investigated.
Abstract: The aim of broth and agar dilution methods is to determine the lowest concentration of the assayed antimicrobial agent (minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC) that, under defined test conditions, inhibits the visible growth of the bacterium being investigated. MIC values are used to determine susceptibilities of bacteria to drugs and also to evaluate the activity of new antimicrobial agents. Agar dilution involves the incorporation of different concentrations of the antimicrobial substance into a nutrient agar medium followed by the application of a standardized number of cells to the surface of the agar plate. For broth dilution, often determined in 96-well microtiter plate format, bacteria are inoculated into a liquid growth medium in the presence of different concentrations of an antimicrobial agent. Growth is assessed after incubation for a defined period of time (16-20 h) and the MIC value is read. This protocol applies only to aerobic bacteria and can be completed in 3 d.
TL;DR: Standardized methods for determining minimum inhibitory concentrations and MBCs are described and like all standardized procedures, the method must be adhered to and may not be adapted by the user.
Abstract: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) are defined as the lowest concentration of an antimicrobial that will inhibit the visible growth of a microorganism after overnight incubation, and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) as the lowest concentration of antimicrobial that will prevent the growth of an organism after subculture on to antibiotic-free media. MICs are used by diagnostic laboratories mainly to confirm resistance, but most often as a research tool to determine the in vitro activity of new antimicrobials, and data from such studies have been used to determine MIC breakpoints. MBC determinations are undertaken less frequently and their major use has been reserved for isolates from the blood of patients with endocarditis. Standardized methods for determining MICs and MBCs are described in this paper. Like all standardized procedures, the method must be adhered to and may not be adapted by the user. The method gives information on the storage of standard antibiotic powder, preparation of stock antibiotic solutions, media, preparation of inocula, incubation conditions, and reading and interpretation of results. Tables giving expected MIC ranges for control NCTC and ATCC strains are also supplied.
TL;DR: The antimicrobial properties of silver and copper nanoparticles were investigated using Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and found that while silver was in its pure form, an oxide layer existed on the Copper nanoparticles.
Abstract: The antimicrobial properties of silver and copper nanoparticles were investigated using Escherichia coli (four strains), Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (three strains). The average sizes of the silver and copper nanoparticles were 3 nm and 9 nm, respectively, as determined through transmission electron microscopy. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectra of silver and copper nanoparticles revealed that while silver was in its pure form, an oxide layer existed on the copper nanoparticles. The bactericidal effect of silver and copper nanoparticles were compared based on diameter of inhibition zone in disk diffusion tests and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of nanoparticles dispersed in batch cultures. Bacterial sensitivity to nanoparticles was found to vary depending on the microbial species. Disk diffusion studies with E. coli and S. aureus revealed greater effectiveness of the silver nanoparticles compared to the copper nanoparticles. B. subtilis depicted the highest sensitivity to nanoparticles compared to the other strains and was more adversely affected by the copper nanoparticles. Good correlation was observed between MIC and MBC (r2=0.98) measured in liquid cultures. For copper nanoparticles a good negative correlation was observed between the inhibition zone observed in disk diffusion test and MIC/MBC determined based on liquid cultures with the various strains (r2=-0.75). Although strain-specific variation in MIC/MBC was negligible for S. aureus, some strain-specific variation was observed for E. coli.
TL;DR: Results show that chitosan nanoparticles and copper-loaded nanoparticles could inhibit the growth of various bacteria tested and exposed to S. choleraesuis led to the disruption of cell membranes and the leakage of cytoplasm.
Abstract: Chitosan nanoparticles, such as those prepared in this study, may exhibit potential antibacterial activity as their unique character. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of chitosan nanoparticles and copper-loaded nanoparticles against various microorganisms. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared based on the ionic gelation of chitosan with tripolyphosphate anions. Copper ions were adsorbed onto the chitosan nanoparticles mainly by ion-exchange resins and surface chelation to form copper-loaded nanoparticles. The physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were determined by size and zeta potential analysis, atomic force microscopy (AFM), FTIR analysis, and XRD pattern. The antibacterial activity of chitosan nanoparticles and copper-loaded nanoparticles against E. coli, S. choleraesuis, S. typhimurium, and S. aureus was evaluated by calculation of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Results show that chitosan nanoparticles and copper-loaded nanoparticles could inhibit the growth of various bacteria tested. Their MIC values were less than 0.25 microg/mL, and the MBC values of nanoparticles reached 1 microg/mL. AFM revealed that the exposure of S. choleraesuis to the chitosan nanoparticles led to the disruption of cell membranes and the leakage of cytoplasm.
TL;DR: The bacteriostatic/bactericidal effect of AgNPs is found to be size and dose-dependent as determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of silver nanoparticles against four bacterial strains.
Abstract: A systematic and detailed study for size-specific antibacterial efficacy of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using a co-reduction approach is presented here. Nucleation and growth kinetics during the synthesis process was precisely controlled and AgNPs of average size 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50, 63, 85, and 100 nm were synthesized with good yield and monodispersity. We found the bacteriostatic/bactericidal effect of AgNPs to be size and dose-dependent as determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of silver nanoparticles against four bacterial strains. Out of the tested strains, Escherichia coli MTCC 443 and Staphylococcus aureus NCIM 5201 were found to be the most and least sensitive strains regardless of AgNP size. For AgNPs with less than 10 nm size, the antibacterial efficacy was significantly enhanced as revealed through delayed bacterial growth kinetics, corresponding MIC/MBC values and disk diffusion tests. AgNPs of the smallest size, i.e., 5 nm demonstrated the best results and mediated the fastest bactericidal activity against all the tested strains compared to AgNPs having 7 nm and 10 nm sizes at similar bacterial concentrations. TEM analysis of AgNP treated bacterial cells showed the presence of AgNPs on the cell membrane, and AgNPs internalized within the cells.
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